Drugs Details

Drugs Info of Acova
Drugs Details
  • Drugs Type  : Multum
  • Date : 8th Jan 2015 12:40 am
  • Brand Name :  Acova
  • Generic Name :  argatroban (Pronunciation: ar GAT roe ban)
Descriptions

Argatroban is a synthetic direct thrombin inhibitor and the chemical name is 1-[5[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]1-oxo-2-[[(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-methyl-8-quinolinyl)sulfonyl]amino]pentyl]-4methyl-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid, monohydrate. Argatroban has 4 asymmetric carbons. One of the asymmetric carbons has an R configuration (stereoisomer Type I) and an S configuration (stereoisomer Type II). Argatroban consists of a mixture of R and S stereoisomers at a ratio of approximately 65:35.

The molecular formula of argatroban is C23H36N6O5S•H2O. Its molecular weight is 526.66 g/mol. The structural formula is:

 

Argatroban - Structural Formula Illustration

Argatroban Injection is a sterile, non-pyrogenic, clear, colorless to pale yellow isotonic solution. It is supplied in a single use polyolefin bag containing 250 mg of argatroban in 250 mL sodium chloride solution (1 mg/mL). Each mL contains 1 mg argatroban, 9 mg sodium chloride, USP, and 3 mg sorbitol, NF in water for injection, USP. The pH of the solution is between 3.2 to 7.5.

What are the possible side effects of argatroban (Acova)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • feeling like you might pass out;
  • easy bruising, unusual bleeding (nose, mouth, vagina, or rectum), purple or red pinpoint spots under your skin;
  • blood in your urine;
  • black, bloody, or tarry stools;
  • coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds;
  • any bleeding that will not stop;
  • pain or...

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This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Indications

Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia

Argatroban Injection is indicated for prophylaxis or treatment of thrombosis in adult patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT).

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Argatroban Injection is indicated as an anticoagulant in adult patients with or at risk for HIT undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Dosage Administration

Each 250 mL polyolefin bag contains 250 mg of argatroban (1 mg/mL); and, as supplied, is ready for intravenous infusion. Dilution is not required.

Argatroban Injection is a clear, colorless to pale yellow solution. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Do not use if the solution is cloudy, contains precipitates, or if the flip-off seal is not intact.

Dosing In Patients With Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia

Initial Dosage

Before administering Argatroban Injection, discontinue heparin therapy and obtain a baseline aPTT. The recommended initial dose of Argatroban Injection for adult patients without hepatic impairment is 2 mcg/kg/min, administered as a continuous infusion (see Table 1).

Table 1: Recommended Doses and Infusion Rates for 2 mcg/kg/min Dose of Argatroban Injection for Patients With HITa and Without Hepatic Impairment (1 mg/mL Concentration)

Body Weight (kg) Dose (mcg/min) Infusion Rate (mL/hr)
50 100 6
60 120 7
70 140 8
80 160 10
90 180 11
100 200 12
110 220 13
120 240 14
130 260 16
140 280 17
awith or without thrombosis
Monitoring Therapy

For use in HIT, therapy with Argatroban Injection is monitored using the aPTT with a target range of 1.5 to 3 times the initial baseline value (not to exceed 100 seconds). Tests of anticoagulant effects (including the aPTT) typically attain steady-state levels within 1 to 3 hours following initiation of Argatroban Injection. Check the aPTT 2 hours after initiation of therapy and after any dose change to confirm that the patient has attained the desired therapeutic range.

Dosage Adjustment

After the initiation of Argatroban Injection, adjust the dose (not to exceed 10 mcg/kg/min) as necessary to obtain a steady-state aPTT in the target range [see Clinical Studies].

Dosing In Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Initial Dosage

Initiate an infusion of Argatroban Injection at 25 mcg/kg/min and administer a bolus of 350 mcg/kg via a large bore intravenous line over 3 to 5 minutes (see Table 2). Check an activated clotting time (ACT) 5 to 10 minutes after the bolus dose is completed. The PCI procedure may proceed if the ACT is greater than 300 seconds.

Dosage Adjustment

If the ACT is less than 300 seconds, an additional intravenous bolus dose of 150 mcg/kg should be administered, the infusion dose increased to 30 mcg/kg/min, and the ACT checked 5 to 10 minutes later (see Table 2).

If the ACT is greater than 450 seconds, decrease the infusion rate to 15 mcg/kg/min, and check the ACT 5 to 10 minutes later (Table 3).

Continue titrating the dose until a therapeutic ACT (between 300 and 450 seconds) has been achieved; continue the same infusion rate for the duration of the PCI procedure.

In case of dissection, impending abrupt closure, thrombus formation during the procedure, or inability to achieve or maintain an ACT over 300 seconds, additional bolus doses of 150 mcg/kg may be administered and the infusion dose increased to 40 mcg/kg/min. Check the ACT after each additional bolus or change in the rate of infusion.

Table 2: Recommended Starting and Maintenance Doses (Within the Target ACT Range) of Argatroban Injection in Patients Undergoing PCI Without Hepatic Impairment (1 mg/mL Concentration)

Body Weight (kg) Starting Bolus Dose (350 mcg/kg) Starting and Maintenance Continuous Infusion Dosing For ACT 300 to 450 seconds 25 mcg/kg/min
Bolus Dose (mcg) Bolus Volume (mL) Continuous Infusion Dose (mg/min) Continuous Infusion Rate (mL/hr)
50 17500 18 1250 75
60 21000 21 1500 90
70 24500 25 1750 105
80 28000 28 2000 120
90 31500 32 2250 135
100 35000 35 2500 150
110 38500 39 2750 165
120 42000 42 3000 180
130 45500 46 3250 195
140 49000 49 3500 210
NOTE: 1 mg = 1000 mcg; 1 kg = 2.2 lbs

Table 3: Recommended Dose Adjustments of Argatroban Injection for Patients Outside of ACT Target Range Undergoing PCI Without Hepatic Impairment (1 mg/mL Concentration)

View Enlarged Table
Monitoring Therapy

For use in PCI, therapy with Argatroban Injection is monitored using ACT. Obtain ACTs before dosing, 5 to 10 minutes after bolus dosing, following adjustments in the infusion rate, and at the end of the PCI procedure. Obtain additional ACTs every 20 to 30 minutes during a prolonged procedure.

Continued Anticoagulation after PCI

If a patient requires anticoagulation after the procedure, Argatroban Injection may be continued, but at a rate of 2 mcg/kg/min and adjusted as needed to maintain the aPTT in the desired range [see Dosing in Patients with Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia].

Dosing In Patients With Hepatic Impairment

For adult patients with HIT and moderate or severe hepatic impairment (based on Child-Pugh classification), an initial dose of 0.5 mcg/kg/min is recommended, based on the approximately 4-fold decrease in argatroban clearance relative to those with normal hepatic function. Monitor the aPTT closely, and adjust the dosage as clinically indicated.

Monitoring Therapy

Achievement of steady-state aPTT levels may take longer and require more dose adjustments in patients with hepatic impairment compared to patients with normal hepatic function.

For patients with hepatic impairment undergoing PCI and who have HIT or are at risk for HIT, carefully titrate Argatroban Injection until the desired level of anticoagulation is achieved. Use of Argatroban Injection in PCI patients with clinically significant hepatic disease or AST/ALT levels greater than or equal to 3 times the upper limit of normal should be avoided [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Dosing In Pediatric Patients With Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia/Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia And Thrombosis Syndrome

Initial Dosage

Initial argatroban infusion doses are lower for seriously ill pediatric patients compared to adults with normal hepatic function [see Use in Specific Populations].

Monitoring Therapy

In general, therapy with argatroban is monitored using the aPTT. Tests of anticoagulant effects (including the aPTT) typically attain steady-state levels within one to three hours following initiation of argatroban in patients without hepatic impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] . Dose adjustment may be required to attain the target aPTT. Check the aPTT two hours after initiation of therapy and after any dose change to confirm that the patient has attained the desired therapeutic range.

Dosage Adjustment: [see Use in Specific Populations]

Conversion To Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

Initiating Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

When converting patients from argatroban to oral anticoagulant therapy, consider the potential for combined effects on International Normalized Ratio (INR). To avoid prothrombotic effects and to ensure continuous anticoagulation when initiating warfarin, overlap Argatroban Injection and warfarin therapy. There are insufficient data available to recommend the duration of the overlap. Initiate therapy using the expected daily dose of warfarin. A loading dose of warfarin should not be used.

The relationship between INR and bleeding risk is altered when argatroban and warfarin are coadministered. The combination of argatroban and warfarin does not cause further reduction in the vitamin K–dependent factor Xa activity than that which is seen with warfarin alone. The relationship between INR obtained on combined therapy and INR obtained on warfarin alone is dependent on both the dose of argatroban and the thromboplastin reagent used. The INR value on warfarin alone (INRW) can be calculated from the INR value on combination argatroban and warfarin therapy [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] .

Coadministration of Warfarin and Argatroban Injection at Doses Up to 2 mcg/kg/min

Measure INR daily while Argatroban Injection and warfarin are coadministered. In general, with doses of Argatroban Injection up to 2 mcg/kg/min, Argatroban Injection can be discontinued when the INR is greater than 4 on combined therapy. After Argatroban Injection is discontinued, repeat the INR measurement in 4 to 6 hours. If the repeat INR is below the desired therapeutic range, resume the infusion of Argatroban Injection and repeat the procedure daily until the desired therapeutic range on warfarin alone is reached.

Coadministration of Warfarin and Argatroban Injection at Doses Greater than 2 mcg/kg/min

For doses greater than 2 mcg/kg/min, the relationship of INR between warfarin alone to the INR on warfarin plus argatroban is less predictable. In this case, in order to predict the INR on warfarin alone, temporarily reduce the dose of Argatroban Injection to a dose of 2 mcg/kg/min. Repeat the INR on Argatroban Injection and warfarin 4 to 6 hours after reduction of the Argatroban Injection dose and follow the process outlined above for administering Argatroban Injection at doses up to 2 mcg/kg/min.

How Supplied

Dosage Forms And Strengths

Argatroban Injection is supplied in a single use polyolefin bag containing 250 mg argatroban in 250 mL aqueous sodium chloride solution (1 mg/mL). The solution is ready for intravenous infusion.

Storage And Handling

Argatroban Injection is supplied as a single use polyolefin bag containing 250 mg argatroban in 250 mL of aqueous sodium chloride solution (1 mg/mL). The polyolefin bag has a single port which is sealed with a rubber stopper and flip-off seal, and is stored in an aluminum foil overpouch with clear window.

NDC 0703-0020-32 one carton containing 5 polyolefin bags of Argatroban Injection (each bag contains 250 mg of argatroban).

Storage

Store the bag in its original carton at 20° to 25° C (68° to 77°F) (see USP Controlled Room Temperature). Do not freeze. Retain in the original carton to protect from light.

Manufactured In Hungary By: Teva Pharmaceutical Works Ltd. Hungary, H-2100 Godollo Tancsics M. ut 82 Hungary. Manufactured For: Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Sellersville, PA 18960. Issued. 11/2014


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Side Effects

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse event rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adverse Events In Patients With HIT (With Or Without Thrombosis)

The following safety information is based on all 568 patients treated with argatroban in Study 1 and Study 2. The safety profile of the patients from these studies is compared with that of 193 historical controls in which the adverse events were collected retrospectively. Adverse events are separated into hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic events.

Major bleeding was defined as bleeding that was overt and associated with a hemoglobin decrease ≥ 2 g/dL, that led to a transfusion of ≥ 2 units, or that was intracranial, retroperitoneal, or into a major prosthetic joint. Minor bleeding was overt bleeding that did not meet the criteria for major bleeding.

Table 4 gives an overview of the most frequently observed hemorrhagic events, presented separately by major and minor bleeding, sorted by decreasing occurrence among argatroban-treated patients with HIT (with or without thrombosis).

Table 4: Major and Minor Hemorrhagic Adverse Events in Patients With HIT*

Major Hemorrhagic Eventsa
  Argatroban-Treated Patients (Study 1 and Study 2)
(n = 568) %
Historical Controlc
(n =193) %
Overall bleeding 5.3 6.7
Gastrointestinal 2.3 1.6
Genitourinary and hematuria 0.9 0.5
Decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit 0.7 0
Multisystem hemorrhage and DIC 0.5 1
Limb and BKA stump 0.5 0
Intracranial hemorrhage 0b 0.5
Minor Hemorrhagic Eventsa
  Argatroban-Treated Patients (Study 1 and Study 2)
(n = 568) %
Historical Controlc
(n = 193) %
Gastrointestinal 14.4 18.1
Genitourinary and hematuria 11.6 0.8
Decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit 10.4 0
Groin 5.4 3.1
Hemoptysis 2.9 0.8
Brachial 2.4 0.8
*with or without thrombosis
a Patients may have experienced more than 1 adverse event.
b One patient experienced intracranial hemorrhage 4 days after discontinuation of argatroban and following therapy with urokinase and oral anticoagulation.
c The historical control group consisted of patients with a clinical diagnosis of HIT (with or without thrombosis) that were considered eligible by an independent medical panel. DIC = disseminated intravascular coagulation. BKA = below-the-knee amputation.

Table 5 gives an overview of the most frequently observed non-hemorrhagic events sorted by decreasing frequency of occurrence ( ≥ 2%) among argatroban-treated HIT/HITTS patients.

Table 5: Non-hemorrhagic Adverse Events in Patientsa With HITb

  Argatroban-Treated Patients (Study 1 and Study 2)
(n = 568) %
Historical Controlc
(n = 193) %
Dyspnea 8.1 8.8
Hypotension 7.2 2.6
Fever 6.9 2.1
Diarrhea 6.2 1.6
Sepsis 6 12.4
Cardiac arrest 5.8 3.1
Nausea 4.8 0.5
Ventricular tachycardia 4.8 3.1
Pain 4.6 3.1
Urinary tract infection 4.6 5.2
Vomiting 4.2 0
Infection 3.7 3.6
Pneumonia 3.3 9.3
Atrial fibrillation 3 11.4
Coughing 2.8 1.6
Abnormal renal function 2.8 4.7
Abdominal pain 2.6 1.6
Cerebrovascular disorder 2.3 4.1
a Patients may have experienced more than 1 adverse event.
b with or without thrombosis
cThe historical control group consisted of patients with a clinical diagnosis of HIT (with or without thrombosis) that were considered eligible by an independent medical panel.

Adverse Events In Patients With Or At Risk For HIT Patients Undergoing PCI

The following safety information is based on 91 patients initially treated with argatroban and 21 patients subsequently re-exposed to argatroban for a total of 112 PCIs with argatroban anticoagulation. Adverse events are separated into hemorrhagic (Table 6) and non-hemorrhagic (Table 7) events.

Major bleeding was defined as bleeding that was overt and associated with a hemoglobin decrease ≥ 5 g/dL, that led to a transfusion of ≥ 2 units, or that was intracranial, retroperitoneal, or into a major prosthetic joint. The rate of major bleeding events in patients treated with argatroban in the PCI trials was 1.8%.

Table 6: Major and Minor Hemorrhagic Adverse Events in Patients With HIT Undergoing PCI

Major Hemorrhagic Eventsa
  Argatroban-Treated Patients
(n = 112)b %
Retroperitoneal 0.9
Gastrointestinal 0.9
Intracranial 0
Minor Hemorrhagic Eventsa
  Argatroban-Treated Patients
(n = 112)b %
Groin (bleeding or hematoma) 3.6
Gastrointestinal (includes hematemesis) 2.6
Genitourinary (includes hematuria) 1.8
Decrease in hemoglobin and/or hematocrit 1.8
CABG (coronary arteries) 1.8
Access site 0.9
Hemoptysis 0.9
Other 0.9
a Patients may have experienced more than 1 adverse event.
b 91 patients who underwent 112 interventions. CABG = coronary artery bypass graft.

Table 7 gives an overview of the most frequently observed non-hemorrhagic events ( > 2%), sorted by decreasing frequency of occurrence among argatroban-treated PCI patients.

Table 7: Non-hemorrhagic Adverse Eventsa in Patients With HIT Patients Undergoing PCI

  Argatroban Proceduresa
(n = 112)b %
Chest pain 15.2
Hypotension 10.7
Back pain 8
Nausea 7.1
Vomiting 6.3
Headache 5.4
Bradycardia 4.5
Abdominal pain 3.6
Fever 3.6
Myocardial infarction 3.6
a Patients may have experienced more than 1 adverse event.
b 91 patients who underwent 112 interventions.

There were 22 serious adverse events in 17 PCI patients (19.6% in 112 interventions). Table 8 lists the serious adverse events occurring in argatroban-treated patients with or at risk for HIT undergoing PCI.

Table 8: Serious Adverse Events in Patients With HIT Undergoing PCIa

Coded Term Argatroban Proceduresb
(n =112)
Myocardial infarction 4 (3.5%)
Angina pectoris 2 (1.8%)
Coronary thrombosis 2 (1.8%)
Myocardial ischemia 2 (1.8%)
Occlusion coronary 2 (1.8%)
Chest pain 1 (0.9%)
Fever 1 (0.9%)
Retroperitoneal hemorrhage 1 (0.9%)
Aortic stenosis 1 (0.9%)
Arterial thrombosis 1 (0.9%)
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage 1 (0.9%)
Gastrointestinal disorder (GERD) 1 (0.9%)
Cerebrovascular disorder 1 (0.9%)
Lung edema 1 (0.9%)
Vascular disorder 1 (0.9%)
a Individual events may also have been reported elsewhere (see Tables 6 and 7).
b 91 patients underwent 112 procedures. Some patients may have experienced more than 1 event.

Intracranial Bleeding In Other Populations

Increased risks for intracranial bleeding have been observed in investigational studies of argatroban for other uses. In a study of patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving both argatroban and thrombolytic therapy (streptokinase or tissue plasminogen activator), the overall frequency of intracranial bleeding was 1% (8 out of 810 patients). Intracranial bleeding was not observed in 317 subjects or patients who did not receive concomitant thrombolysis [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

The safety and effectiveness of argatroban for cardiac indications other than PCI in patients with HIT have not been established. Intracranial bleeding was also observed in a prospective, placebo-controlled study of argatroban in patients who had onset of acute stroke within 12 hours of study entry. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was reported in 5 of 117 patients (4.3%) who received argatroban at 1 to 3 mcg/kg/min and in none of the 54 patients who received placebo. Asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 5 (4.3%) and 2 (3.7%) of the patients, respectively.

Allergic Reactions

One hundred fifty-six allergic reactions or suspected allergic reactions were observed in 1,127 individuals who were treated with argatroban in clinical pharmacology studies or for various clinical indications. About 95% (148/156) of these reactions occurred in patients who concomitantly received thrombolytic therapy (e.g., streptokinase) or contrast media.

Allergic reactions or suspected allergic reactions in populations other than patients with HIT (with or without thrombosis) include (in descending order of frequency):

  • Airway reactions (coughing, dyspnea): 10% or more
  • Skin reactions (rash, bullous eruption): 1 to < 10%
  • General reactions (vasodilation): 1 to 10%

Limited data are available on the potential formation of drug-related antibodies. Plasma from 12 healthy volunteers treated with argatroban over 6 days showed no evidence of neutralizing antibodies. No loss of anticoagulant activity was noted with repeated administration of argatroban to more than 40 patients.

Read the Argatroban (argatroban injection) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Interactions

Heparin

If argatroban is to be initiated after cessation of heparin therapy, allow sufficient time for heparin's effect on the aPTT to decrease prior to initiation of argatroban therapy.

Oral Anticoagulant Agents

Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between argatroban and warfarin (7.5 mg single oral dose) have not been demonstrated. However, the concomitant use of argatroban and warfarin (5 to 7.5 mg initial oral dose, followed by 2.5 to 6 mg/day orally for 6 to 10 days) results in prolongation of the prothrombin time (PT) and International Normalized Ratio (INR) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Aspirin/Acetaminophen

No drug-drug interactions have been demonstrated between argatroban and concomitantly administered aspirin or acetaminophen [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Thrombolytic Agents

The safety and effectiveness of argatroban with thrombolytic agents have not been established [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].

Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Antagonists

The safety and effectiveness of argatroban with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists have not been established.


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Warnings

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

Precautions

Risk Of Hemorrhage

Hemorrhage can occur at any site in the body in patients receiving argatroban. An unexplained fall in hematocrit or hemoglobin or a fall in blood pressure should lead to consideration of a hemorrhagic event. Argatroban Injection should be used with extreme caution in disease states and other circumstances in which there is an increased danger of hemorrhage. These include severe hypertension; immediately following lumbar puncture; spinal anesthesia; major surgery, especially involving the brain, spinal cord, or eye; hematologic conditions associated with increased bleeding tendencies such as congenital or acquired bleeding disorders and gastrointestinal lesions such as ulcerations.

Concomitant use of argatroban with antiplatelet agents, thrombolytics, and other anticoagulants may increase the risk of bleeding.

Use In Hepatic Impairment

Use caution when administering argatroban to patients with hepatic impairment by starting with a lower dose and carefully titrating until the desired level of anticoagulation is achieved. Upon cessation of argatroban infusion in the hepatically impaired patient, full reversal of anticoagulant effects may require longer than 4 hours due to decreased clearance and increased elimination half-life of argatroban [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Use of argatroban in PCI patients with clinically significant hepatic disease or AST/ALT levels ≥ 3 times the upper limit of normal should be avoided.

Laboratory Tests

Anticoagulation effects associated with argatroban infusion at doses up to 40 mcg/kg/min correlate with increases of the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Although other global clot-based tests including prothrombin time (PT), the International Normalized Ratio (INR), and thrombin time (TT) are affected by argatroban, the therapeutic ranges for these tests have not been identified for argatroban therapy. In clinical trials in PCI, the activated clotting time (ACT) was used for monitoring argatroban anticoagulant activity during the procedure. The concomitant use of argatroban and warfarin results in prolongation of the PT and INR beyond that produced by warfarin alone [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Carcinogenicity studies with argatroban have not been performed.

Argatroban was not genotoxic in the Ames test, the Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO/HGPRT) forward mutation test, the Chinese hamster lung fibroblast chromosome aberration test, the rat hepatocyte, and WI-38 human fetal lung cell unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) tests, or the mouse micronucleus test.

Argatroban at intravenous doses up to 27 mg/kg/day (0.3 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area) had no effect on fertility and reproductive function of male and female rats.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category B

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of argatroban use in pregnant women. Developmental studies performed in rats with argatroban at intravenous doses up to 27 mg/kg/day (0.3 times the maximum recommended human dose, based on body surface area) and in rabbits at intravenous doses up to 10.8 mg/kg/day (0.2 times the maximum recommended human dose, based on body surface area) have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether argatroban is excreted in human milk. Argatroban is detected in rat milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from argatroban, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of argatroban, including the appropriate anticoagulation goals and duration of therapy, have not been established among pediatric patients. Argatroban was studied among 18 seriously ill pediatric patients who required an alternative to heparin anticoagulation. Most patients were diagnosed with HIT or suspected HIT. Age ranges of patients were < 6 months, n = 8; six months to < 8 years, n = 6; 8 to 16 years, n = 4. All patients had serious underlying conditions and were receiving multiple concomitant medications. Thirteen patients received argatroban solely as a continuous infusion (no bolus dose). Dosing was initiated in the majority of these 13 patients at 1 mcg/kg/min. Dosing was titrated as needed to achieve and maintain an aPTT of 1.5 to 3 times the baseline value. Most patients required multiple dose adjustments to maintain anticoagulation parameters within the desired range. During the 30-day study period, thrombotic events occurred during argatroban administration to two patients and following argatroban discontinuation in three other patients. Major bleeding occurred among two patients; one patient experienced an intracranial hemorrhage after 4 days of argatroban therapy in the setting of sepsis and thrombocytopenia. Another patient completed 14 days of argatroban treatment in the study, but experienced an intracranial hemorrhage while receiving argatroban following completion of the study treatment period.

When argatroban is used among seriously ill pediatric patients with HIT/HITTS who require an alternative to heparin and who have normal hepatic function, initiate a continuous infusion of argatroban at a dose of 0.75 mcg/kg/min. Initiate the infusion at a dose of 0.2 mcg/kg/min among seriously ill pediatric patients with impaired hepatic function [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Check the aPTT two hours after the initiation of the argatroban infusion and adjust the dose to achieve the target aPTT. These dose recommendations are based upon a goal of aPTT prolongation of 1.5 to 3 times the baseline value and avoidance of an aPTT > 100 seconds. Increments of 0.1 to 0.25 mcg/kg/min for pediatric patients with normal hepatic function and increments of 0.05 mcg/kg/min or lower for pediatric patients with impaired hepatic function may be considered but dose selection must take into account multiple factors including the current argatroban dose, the current aPTT, target aPTT, and the clinical status of the patient. These dose recommendations are based upon a goal of aPTT prolongation of 1.5 to 3 times the baseline value and avoidance of an aPTT > 100 seconds.

Geriatric Use

Of the total number of subjects (1340) in clinical studies of argatroban, 35% were 65 and over. In the clinical studies of adult patients with HIT (with or without thrombosis), the effectiveness of argatroban was not affected by age. No trends were observed across age groups for both aPTT and the ACT. The safety analysis did suggest that older patients tended to have an increased incidence of events compared to younger patients; however, older patients had increased underlying conditions, which may predispose them to events. The studies were not sized appropriately to detect differences in safety between age groups.

Hepatic Impairment

Dose reduction and careful titration are required when administering argatroban to patients with hepatic impairment. Reversal of anticoagulation effect may be prolonged in this population [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OverDose

Excessive anticoagulation, with or without bleeding, may be controlled by discontinuing argatroban or by decreasing the argatroban dose. In clinical studies, anticoagulation parameters generally returned from therapeutic levels to baseline within 2 to 4 hours after discontinuation of the drug. Reversal of anticoagulant effect may take longer in patients with hepatic impairment.

No specific antidote to argatroban is available; if life-threatening bleeding occurs and excessive plasma levels of argatroban are suspected, discontinue argatroban immediately and measure aPTT and other coagulation parameters. When argatroban was administered as a continuous infusion (2 mcg/kg/min) prior to and during a 4-hour hemodialysis session, approximately 20% of argatroban was cleared through dialysis.

Single intravenous doses of argatroban at 200, 124, 150, and 200 mg/kg were lethal to mice, rats, rabbits, and dogs, respectively. The symptoms of acute toxicity were loss of righting reflex, tremors, clonic convulsions, paralysis of hind limbs, and coma.

ContrainDications

Argatroban is contraindicated in:

  • Patients with major bleeding,
  • Patients with a history of hypersensitivity to argatroban. Airway, skin, and generalized hypersensitivity reactions have been reported [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Clinical Pharamacology

Mechanism Of Action

Argatroban is a direct thrombin inhibitor that reversibly binds to the thrombin active site. Argatroban does not require the co-factor antithrombin III for antithrombotic activity. Argatroban exerts its anticoagulant effects by inhibiting thrombin-catalyzed or -induced reactions, including fibrin formation; activation of coagulation factors V, VIII, and XIII; activation of protein C; and platelet aggregation.

Argatroban inhibits thrombin with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 0.04 μM. At therapeutic concentrations, argatroban has little or no effect on related serine proteases (trypsin, factor Xa, plasmin, and kallikrein).

Argatroban is capable of inhibiting the action of both free and clot-associated thrombin.

Pharmacodynamics

When argatroban is administered by continuous infusion, anticoagulant effects and plasma concentrations of argatroban follow similar, predictable temporal response profiles, with low intersubject variability. Immediately upon initiation of argatroban infusion, anticoagulant effects are produced as plasma argatroban concentrations begin to rise. Steady-state levels of both drug and anticoagulant effect are typically attained within 1 to 3 hours and are maintained until the infusion is discontinued or the dosage adjusted. Steady-state plasma argatroban concentrations increase proportionally with dose (for infusion doses up to 40 mcg/kg/min in healthy subjects) and are well correlated with steady-state anticoagulant effects. For infusion doses up to 40 mcg/kg/min, argatroban increases in a dose-dependent fashion, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), the activated clotting time (ACT), the prothrombin time (PT), the International Normalized Ratio (INR), and the thrombin time (TT) in healthy volunteers and cardiac patients. Representative steady-state plasma argatroban concentrations and anticoagulant effects are shown below for argatroban infusion doses up to 10 mcg/kg/min (see Figure 1).

Figure 1: Relationship at Steady-State Between Argatroban Dose, Plasma Argatroban Concentration and Anticoagulant Effect

Relationship at Steady-State Between Argatroban Dose, Plasma Argatroban Concentration and Anticoagulant Effect - Illustration
Effect on International Normalized Ratio (INR)

Because argatroban is a direct thrombin inhibitor, coadministration of argatroban and warfarin produces a combined effect on the laboratory measurement of the INR. However, concurrent therapy, compared to warfarin monotherapy, exerts no additional effect on vitamin K–dependent factor Xa activity.

The relationship between INR on co-therapy and warfarin alone is dependent on both the dose of argatroban and the thromboplastin reagent used. This relationship is influenced by the International Sensitivity Index (ISI) of the thromboplastin. Data for 2 commonly utilized thromboplastins with ISI values of 0.88 (Innovin, Dade) and 1.78 (Thromboplastin C Plus, Dade) are presented in Figure 2 for an argatroban dose of 2 mcg/kg/min. Thromboplastins with higher ISI values than shown result in higher INRs on combined therapy of warfarin and argatroban. These data are based on results obtained in normal individuals [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Figure 2: INR Relationship of Argatroban Plus Warfarin Versus Warfarin Alone

INR Relationship of Argatroban Plus Warfarin Versus Warfarin Alone - Illustration

Figure 2 demonstrates the relationship between INR for warfarin alone and INR for warfarin coadministered with argatroban at a dose of 2 mcg/kg/min. To calculate INR for warfarin alone (INRW), based on INR for cotherapy of warfarin and argatroban (INRWA), when the argatroban dose is 2 mcg/kg/min, use the equation next to the appropriate curve. Example: At a dose of 2 mcg/kg/min and an INR performed with Thromboplastin A, the equation 0.19 + 0.57 (INRWA) = INRW would allow a prediction of the INR on warfarin alone (INRW). Thus, using an INRWA value of 4 obtained on combined therapy: INRW = 0.19 + 0.57 (4) = 2.47 as the value for INR on warfarin alone. The error (confidence interval) associated with a prediction is ± 0.4 units. Similar linear relationships and prediction errors exist for argatroban at a dose of 1 mcg/kg/min. Thus, for argatroban doses of 1 or 2 mcg/kg/min, INRW can be predicted from INRWA. For argatroban doses greater than 2 mcg/kg/min, the error associated with predicting INRW from INRWA is ± 1. Thus, INRW cannot be reliably predicted from INRWA at doses greater than 2 mcg/kg/min.

Pharmacokinetics

Distribution

Argatroban distributes mainly in the extra cellular fluid as evidenced by an apparent steady-state volume of distribution of 174 mL/kg (12.18 L in a 70 kg adult). Argatroban is 54% bound to human serum proteins, with binding to albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein being 20% and 34%, respectively.

Metabolism

The main route of argatroban metabolism is hydroxylation and aromatization of the 3methyltetrahydroquinoline ring in the liver. The formation of each of the 4 known metabolites is catalyzed in vitro by the human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4/5. The primary metabolite (M1) exerts 3-to 5-fold weaker anticoagulant effects than argatroban. Unchanged argatroban is the major component in plasma. The plasma concentrations of M1 range between 0% and 20% of that of the parent drug. The other metabolites (M2 to M4) are found only in very low quantities in the urine and have not been detected in plasma or feces. These data, together with the lack of effect of erythromycin (a potent CYP3A4/5 inhibitor) on argatroban pharmacokinetics, suggest that CYP3A4/5-mediated metabolism is not an important elimination pathway in vivo.

Total body clearance is approximately 5.1 mL/kg/min (0.31 L/kg/hr) for infusion doses up to 40 mcg/kg/min. The terminal elimination half-life of argatroban ranges between 39 and 51 minutes.

There is no interconversion of the 21–(R):21–(S) diastereoisomers. The plasma ratio of these diastereoisomers is unchanged by metabolism or hepatic impairment, remaining constant at 65:35 (± 2%).

Excretion

Argatroban is excreted primarily in the feces, presumably through biliary secretion. In a study in which 14Cargatroban (5 mcg/kg/min) was infused for 4 hours into healthy subjects, approximately 65% of the radioactivity was recovered in the feces within 6 days of the start of infusion with little or no radioactivity subsequently detected. Approximately 22% of the radioactivity appeared in the urine within 12 hours of the start of infusion. Little or no additional urinary radioactivity was subsequently detected. Average percent recovery of unchanged drug, relative to total dose, was 16% in urine and at least 14% in feces.

Special Populations

Hepatic Impairment

The dosage of argatroban should be decreased in patients with hepatic impairment [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Patients with hepatic impairment were not studied in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) trials. At a dose of 2.5 mcg/kg/min, hepatic impairment is associated with decreased clearance and increased elimination half-life of argatroban (to 1.9 mL/kg/min and 181 minutes, respectively, for patients with a Child-Pugh score > 6).

Renal Impairment

No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with renal dysfunction. The effect of renal disease on the pharmacokinetics of argatroban was studied in 6 subjects with normal renal function (mean Clcr = 95 ± 16 mL/min) and in 18 subjects with mild (mean Clcr = 64 ± 10 mL/min), moderate (mean Clcr = 41 ± 5.8 mL/min), and severe (mean Clcr = 5 ± 7 mL/min) renal impairment. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of argatroban at dosages up to 5 mcg/kg/min were not significantly affected by renal dysfunction.

Use of argatroban was evaluated in a study of 12 patients with stable end-stage renal disease undergoing chronic intermittent hemodialysis. Argatroban was administered at a rate of 2 to 3 mcg/kg/min (begun at least 4 hours prior to dialysis) or as a bolus dose of 250 mcg/kg at the start of dialysis followed by a continuous infusion of 2 mcg/kg/min. Although these regimens did not achieve the goal of maintaining ACT values at 1.8 times the baseline value throughout most of the hemodialysis period, the hemodialysis sessions were successfully completed with both of these regimens. The mean ACTs produced in this study ranged from 1.39 to 1.82 times baseline, and the mean aPTTs ranged from 1.96 to 3.4 times baseline. When argatroban was administered as a continuous infusion of 2 mcg/kg/min prior to and during a 4-hour hemodialysis session, approximately 20% was cleared through dialysis.

Age, Gender

There are no clinically significant effects of age or gender on the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics (e.g., aPTT) of argatroban in adults.

Pediatric

Argatroban clearance is decreased in seriously ill pediatric patients. Pharmacokinetic parameters of argatroban were characterized in a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis with sparse data from 15 seriously ill pediatric patients. Clearance in pediatric patients (0.16 L/hr/kg) was 50% lower compared to healthy adults (0.31 L/hr/kg). Four pediatric patients with elevated bilirubin (secondary to cardiac complications or hepatic impairment) had, on average, 80% lower clearance (0.03 L/hr/kg) when compared to pediatric patients with normal bilirubin levels [see Use In Specific Populations].

Drug-Drug Interactions

Digoxin

In 12 healthy volunteers, intravenous infusion of argatroban (2 mcg/kg/min) over 5 days (study days 11 to 15) did not affect the steady-state pharmacokinetics of oral digoxin (0.375 mg daily for 15 days).

Erythromycin

In 10 healthy subjects, orally administered erythromycin (a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4/5) at 500 mg four times daily for 7 days had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of argatroban at a dose of 1 mcg/kg/min for 5 hours. These data suggest oxidative metabolism by CYP3A4/5 is not an important elimination pathway in vivo for argatroban.

Aspirin and Acetaminophen

Drug-drug interactions have not been demonstrated between argatroban and concomitantly administered aspirin (162.5 mg orally given 26 and 2 hours prior to initiation of argatroban 1 mcg/kg/min over 4 hours) or acetaminophen (1,000 mg orally given 12, 6, and 0 hours prior to, and 6 and 12 hours subsequent to, initiation of argatroban 1.5 mcg/kg/min over 18 hours).

Clinical Studies

Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia

The safety and efficacy of argatroban were evaluated in an historically controlled efficacy and safety study (Study 1) and a follow-on efficacy and safety study (Study 2). These studies were comparable with regard to study design, study objectives, dosing regimens as well as study outline, conduct, and monitoring.

In these studies, 568 adult patients were treated with argatroban and 193 adult patients made up the historical control group. Patients had a clinical diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, either without thrombosis (HIT) or with thrombosis (HITTS [heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis syndrome]) and were males or non-pregnant females between the ages of 18 and 80 years old. HIT/HITTS was defined by a fall in platelet count to less than 100,000/μL or a 50% decrease in platelets after the initiation of heparin therapy with no apparent explanation other than HIT. Patients with HITTS also had an arterial or venous thrombosis documented by appropriate imaging techniques or supported by clinical evidence such as acute myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, or other clinical indications of vascular occlusion. Patients who had documented histories of positive heparin-dependent antibody tests without current thrombocytopenia or heparin challenge (e.g., patients with latent disease) were also included if they required anticoagulation.

These studies did not include patients with documented unexplained aPTT > 200% of control at baseline, documented coagulation disorder or bleeding diathesis unrelated to HIT, a lumbar puncture within the past 7 days or a history of previous aneurysm, hemorrhagic stroke, or a thrombotic stroke within the past 6 months unrelated to HIT.

The initial dose of argatroban was 2 mcg/kg/min. Two hours after the start of the argatroban infusion, an aPTT level was obtained and dose adjustments were made (up to a maximum of 10 mcg/kg/min) to achieve a steady-state aPTT value that was 1.5 to 3 times the baseline value, not to exceed 100 seconds. Overall the mean aPTT level for HIT and HITTS patients during the argatroban infusion increased from baseline values of 34 and 38 seconds, respectively, to 62.5 and 64.5 seconds, respectively.

The primary efficacy analysis was based on a comparison of event rates for a composite endpoint that included death (all causes), amputation (all causes) or new thrombosis during the treatment and follow-up period (study days 0 to 37). Secondary analyses included evaluation of the event rates for the components of the composite endpoint as well as time-to-event analyses.

In Study 1, a total of 304 patients were enrolled as follows: active HIT (n = 129), active HITTS (n = 144), or latent disease (n = 31). Among the 193 historical controls, 139 (72%) had active HIT, 46 (24%) had active HITTS, and 8 (4%) had latent disease. Within each group, those with active HIT and those with latent disease were analyzed together. Positive laboratory confirmation of HIT/HITTS by the heparin-induced platelet aggregation test or serotonin release assay was demonstrated in 174 of 304 (57%) argatroban-treated patients (i.e., in 80 with HIT or latent disease and 94 with HITTS) and in 149 of 193 (77%) historical controls (i.e., in 119 with HIT or latent disease and 30 with HITTS). The test results for the remainder of the patients and controls were either negative or not determined.

There was a significant improvement in the composite outcome in patients with HIT and HITTS treated with argatroban versus those in the historical control group (see Table 9). The components of the composite endpoint are shown in Table 9.

Table 9: Efficacy Results of Study 1: Composite Endpointa and Individual Components, Ranked by Severityb

View Enlarged Table

Time-to-event analyses showed significant improvements in the time-to-first event in patients with HIT or HITTS treated with argatroban versus those in the historical control group. The between-group differences in the proportion of patients who remained free of death, amputation, or new thrombosis were statistically significant in favor of argatroban by these analyses.

A time-to-event analysis for the composite endpoint is shown in Figure 3 for patients with HIT and Figure 4 for patients with HITTS.

Figure 3: Time to First Event for the Composite Efficacy Endpoint: HIT Patients STUDY 1

Time to First Event for the Composite Efficacy Endpoint: HIT Patients STUDY 1 -  Illustration

*Censored indicates no clinical endpoint (defined as death, amputation, or new thrombosis) was observed during the follow-up period (maximum period of follow-up was 37 days).

Figure 4: Time to First Event for the Composite Efficacy Endpoint: HITTS Patients STUDY 1

Time to First Event for the Composite Efficacy Endpoint: HITTS Patients STUDY 1 - Illustration

*Censored indicates no clinical endpoint (defined as death, amputation, or new thrombosis) was observed during the follow-up period (maximum period of follow-up was 37 days).

In Study 2, a total of 264 patients were enrolled as follows: HIT (n = 125) or HITTS (n = 139). There was a significant improvement in the composite efficacy outcome for argatroban-treated patients, versus the same historical control group from Study 1, among patients having HIT (25.6% vs. 38.8%), patients having HITTS (41% vs. 56.5%), and patients having either HIT or HITTS (33.7% vs. 43%). Time-to-event analyses showed significant improvements in the time-to-first event in patients with HIT or HITTS treated with argatroban versus those in the historical control group. The between-group differences in the proportion of patients who remained free of death, amputation, or new thrombosis were statistically significant in favor of argatroban.

Anticoagulant Effect

In Study 1, the mean (± SE) dose of argatroban administered was 2 ± 0.1 mcg/kg/min in the HIT arm and 1.9 ± 0.1 mcg/kg/min in the HITTS arm. Seventy-six percent of patients with HIT and 81% of patients with HITTS achieved a target aPTT at least 1.5-fold greater than the baseline aPTT at the first assessment occurring on average at 4.6 hours (HIT) and 3.9 hours (HITTS) following initiation of argatroban therapy. No enhancement of aPTT response was observed in subjects receiving repeated administration of argatroban.

Platelet Count Recovery

In Study 1, 53% of patients with HIT and 58% of patients with HITTS, had a recovery of platelet count by Day 3. Platelet Count Recovery was defined as an increase in platelet count to > 100,000/μL or to at least 1.5-fold greater than the baseline count (platelet count at study initiation) by Day 3 of the study.

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) Patients With Or At Risk For HIT

In 3 similarly designed trials, argatroban was administered to 91 patients with current or previous clinical diagnosis of HIT or heparin-dependent antibodies, who underwent a total of 112 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) including percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), coronary stent placement, or atherectomy. Among the 91 patients undergoing their first PCI with argatroban, notable ongoing or recent medical history included myocardial infarction (n = 35), unstable angina (n = 23), and chronic angina (n = 34). There were 33 females and 58 males. The average age was 67.6 years (median 70.7, range 44 to 86), and the average weight was 82.5 kg (median 81 kg, range 49 to 141).

Twenty-one of the 91 patients had a repeat PCI using argatroban an average of 150 days after their initial PCI. Seven of 91 patients received glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Safety and efficacy were assessed against historical control populations who had been anticoagulated with heparin.

All patients received oral aspirin (325 mg) 2 to 24 hours prior to the interventional procedure. After venous or arterial sheaths were in place, anticoagulation was initiated with a bolus of argatroban of 350 mcg/kg via a large-bore intravenous line or through the venous sheath over 3 to 5 minutes. Simultaneously, a maintenance infusion of 25 mcg/kg/min was initiated to achieve a therapeutic activated clotting time (ACT) of 300 to 450 seconds. If necessary to achieve this therapeutic range, the maintenance infusion dose was titrated (15 to 40 mcg/kg/min) and/or an additional bolus dose of 150 mcg/kg could be given. Each patient's ACT was checked 5 to 10 minutes following the bolus dose. The ACT was checked as clinically indicated. Arterial and venous sheaths were removed no sooner than 2 hours after discontinuation of argatroban and when the ACT was less than 160 seconds.

If a patient required anticoagulation after the procedure, argatroban could be continued, but at a lower infusion dose between 2.5 and 5 mcg/kg/min. An aPTT was drawn 2 hours after this dose reduction and the dose of argatroban then was adjusted as clinically indicated (not to exceed 10 mcg/kg/min), to reach an aPTT between 1.5 and 3 times baseline value (not to exceed 100 seconds).

In 92 of the 112 interventions (82%), the patient received the initial bolus of 350 mcg/kg and an initial infusion dose of 25 mcg/kg/min. The majority of patients did not require additional bolus dosing during the PCI procedure. The mean value for the initial ACT measurement after the start of dosing for all interventions was 379 sec (median 338 sec; 5th percentile-95th percentile 238 to 675 sec). The mean ACT value per intervention over all measurements taken during the procedure was 416 sec (median 390 sec; 5th percentile-95th percentile 261 to 698 sec). About 65% of patients had ACTs within the recommended range of 300 to 450 seconds throughout the procedure. The investigators did not achieve anticoagulation within the recommended range in about 23% of patients. However, in this small sample, patients with ACTs below 300 seconds did not have more coronary thrombotic events, and patients with ACTs over 450 seconds did not have higher bleeding rates.

Acute procedural success was defined as lack of death, emergent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), or Q-wave myocardial infarction. Acute procedural success was reported in 98.2% of patients who underwent PCIs with argatroban anticoagulation compared with 94.3% of historical control patients anticoagulated with heparin (p = NS). Among the 112 interventions, 2 patients had emergency CABGs, 3 had repeat PTCAs, 4 had non-Qwave myocardial infarctions, 3 had myocardial ischemia, 1 had an abrupt closure, and 1 had an impending closure (some patients may have experienced more than 1 event). No patients died.


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Patient Information

Inform patients of the risks associated with Argatroban Injection as well as the plan for regular monitoring during administration of the drug. Specifically, inform patients to report:

  • the use of any other products known to affect bleeding.
  • any medical history that may increase the risk for bleeding, including a history of severe hypertension; recent lumbar puncture or spinal anesthesia; major surgery, especially involving the brain, spinal cord, or eye; hematologic conditions associated with increased bleeding tendencies such as congenital or acquired bleeding disorders and gastrointestinal lesions such as ulcerations.
  • any bleeding signs or symptoms.
  • the occurrence of any signs or symptoms of allergic reactions (e.g., airway reactions, skin reactions and vasodilation reactions).


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Consumer Overview Uses

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

 

NO MONOGRAPH AVAILABLE AT THIS TIME

 

USES: Consult your pharmacist.

 

HOW TO USE: Consult your pharmacist.

Consumer Overview Side Effect

SIDE EFFECTS: Consult your pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

 

Read the Argatroban (argatroban injection) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

PRECAUTIONS: Consult your pharmacist.

Consumer Overview Missed Dose

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Consult your pharmacist.

Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist.

 

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

 

NOTES: No monograph available at this time.

 

MISSED DOSE: Consult your pharmacist.

 

STORAGE: Consult your pharmacist.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

 

Information last revised March 2013. Copyright(c) 2013 First Databank, Inc.

Patient Detailed Side Effect

Brand Names: Acova

Generic Name: argatroban (Pronunciation: ar GAT roe ban)

  • What is argatroban (Argatroban)?
  • What are the possible side effects of argatroban (Argatroban)?
  • What is the most important information I should know about argatroban (Argatroban)?
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before receiving argatroban (Argatroban)?
  • How is argatroban given (Argatroban)?
  • What happens if I miss a dose (Argatroban)?
  • What happens if I overdose (Argatroban)?
  • What should I avoid while receiving argatroban (Argatroban)?
  • What other drugs will affect argatroban (Argatroban)?
  • Where can I get more information?

What is argatroban (Argatroban)?

Argatroban keeps the platelets in your blood from coagulating (clotting) to prevent unwanted blood clots that can occur while receiving heparin

Argatroban is used to treat or prevent blood clots in people who have thrombocytopenia (low levels of platelets in the blood) caused by using heparin. Argatroban is sometimes used in people who are undergoing a procedure called angioplasty (to open blocked arteries).

Argatroban may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What are the possible side effects of argatroban (Argatroban)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • feeling like you might pass out;
  • easy bruising, unusual bleeding (nose, mouth, vagina, or rectum), purple or red pinpoint spots under your skin;
  • blood in your urine;
  • black, bloody, or tarry stools;
  • coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds;
  • any bleeding that will not stop;
  • pain or burning when you urinate;
  • sudden numbness or weakness, problems with vision, speech, or balance;
  • sudden severe headache, confusion, sudden changes in your senses of taste or touch;
  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms;
  • cough with yellow or green mucus, stabbing chest pain, feeling short of breath;
  • slow heart rate, weak pulse, slow breathing (breathing may stop); or
  • chest pain or heavy feeling, pain spreading to the arm or shoulder, nausea, sweating, general ill feeling.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain;
  • headache;
  • back pain; or
  • bleeding around the IV needle.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Argatroban (argatroban injection) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

What is the most important information I should know about argatroban (Argatroban)?

You should not use this medication if you are allergic to argatroban, or if you have any major bleeding from a surgery, injury, or other medical trauma.

Argatroban is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. However, aspirin is sometimes given with argatroban, and aspirin can cause bleeding when it is taken during the last 3 months of pregnancy. Aspirin can also cause side effects in a newborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.

Before receiving argatroban, tell your doctor if you have liver disease, a stomach ulcer or bleeding, a bleeding or blood clotting disorder, untreated or uncontrolled high blood pressure, if you have recently had a spinal tap or epidural anesthesia, or if you have recently had major surgery (especially on your eyes, brain, or spinal cord).

Tell your doctor if you are using or receiving blood thinners or any other medications used to treat or prevent blood clots.

Because argatroban keeps your blood from coagulating (clotting) to prevent unwanted blood clots, it can also make it easier for you to bleed, even from a minor injury. Contact your doctor or seek emergency medical attention if you have bleeding that will not stop.

Side Effects Centers
  • Argatroban

Patient Detailed How Take

What should I discuss with my health care provider before receiving argatroban (Argatroban)?

You should not receive this medication if you are allergic to argatroban, or if you have any major bleeding from a surgery, injury, or other medical trauma.

To make sure you can safely use argatroban, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

  • a stomach ulcer or bleeding;
  • liver disease;
  • a bleeding or blood clotting disorder (such as hemophilia);
  • untreated or uncontrolled high blood pressure (hypertension);
  • if you have recently had a spinal tap or epidural anesthesia; or
  • if you have recently had major surgery (especially eye surgery, brain surgery, or spinal cord surgery).

Argatroban is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. However, aspirin is sometimes given with argatroban, and aspirin can cause bleeding when it is taken during the last 3 months of pregnancy. Aspirin can also cause side effects in a newborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.

It is not known whether argatroban passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not receive this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How is argatroban given (Argatroban)?

Argatroban is injected into a vein through an IV. You will receive this injection in a clinic or hospital setting. Argatroban is sometimes given together with aspirin.

If you are receiving this injection during an angioplasty procedure, the medicine will be given throughout the entire procedure and for up to 24 hours after the procedure.

Argatroban is given around the clock until your blood coagulates properly. Your doctor will test your blood often to determine how long to treat you with argatroban.

To be sure this medicine is helping your condition and is not causing harmful effects, your blood will need to be tested often. Visit your doctor regularly.

Because argatroban keeps your blood from coagulating (clotting) to prevent unwanted blood clots, it can also make it easier for you to bleed, even from a minor injury. Contact your doctor or seek emergency medical attention if you have bleeding that will not stop.

Side Effects Centers
  • Argatroban

Patient Detailed Avoid Taking

What happens if I miss a dose (Argatroban)?

Since argatroban is given by a healthcare professional, you are not likely to miss a dose.

What happens if I overdose (Argatroban)?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

Overdose symptoms may include severe forms of some of the side effects listed in this medication guide.

What should I avoid while receiving argatroban (Argatroban)?

Avoid activities that may increase your risk of bleeding or injury. Use extra care to prevent bleeding while shaving or brushing your teeth.

Avoid drinking alcohol. It may increase your risk of bleeding in your stomach or intestines.

What other drugs will affect argatroban (Argatroban)?

Tell your doctor about all other medications you use or have recently received to prevent blood clots, such as:

  • a blood thinner such as heparin or warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven);
  • abciximab (ReoPro), anagrelide (Agrylin), cilostazol (Pletal), clopidogrel (Plavix), dipyridamole (Persantine, Aggrenox), eptifibatide (Integrelin), prasugrel (Effient), ticlopidine (Ticlid), tirofiban (Aggrastat);
  • dabigatran (Pradaxa), bivalirudin (Angiomax), lepirudin (Refludan);
  • dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), fondaparinux (Arixtra), tinzaparin (Innohep); or
  • alteplase (Activase), tenecteplase (TNKase), urokinase (Abbokinase).

This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with argatroban. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your doctor or pharmacist can provide more information about argatroban.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2013 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 2.01. Revision date: 12/14/2011.

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  • Argatroban

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