Drugs Details

Drugs Info of Actonel with Calcium
Drugs Details
  • Drugs Type  : Multum
  • Date : 27th Dec 2014 12:54 am
  • Brand Name :  Actonel with Calcium
  • Generic Name :  calcium carbonate and risedronate (Pronunciation: KAL see um KAR bo nate and rye SED roe nate)
Descriptions

Actonel® with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) is a co-package product containing Actonel® (risedronate sodium tablets, 35 mg) for once weekly dosing and calcium carbonate tablets, USP (1250 mg, equivalent to 500 mg elemental calcium) for daily dosing for the remaining 6 days of the week. Each package contains a 28-day course of therapy.

Actonel

Actonel (risedronate sodium tablets) is a pyridinyl bisphosphonate that inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and modulates bone metabolism. Each Actonel tablet in the Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) co-package contains the equivalent of 35 mg of anhydrous risedronate sodium in the form of the hemi-pentahydrate with small amounts of monohydrate. The empirical formula for risedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate is C7H10NO7P2Na •2.5 H2O. The chemical name of risedronate sodium is [1-hydroxy-2-(3-pyridinyl)ethylidene]bis[phosphonic acid] monosodium salt. The chemical structure of risedronate sodium hemi-pentahydrate is the following:

 

Actonel®
 (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) Structural Formula Illustration

Molecular Weight:
Anhydrous: 305.10
Hemi-pentahydrate: 350.13

Risedronate sodium is a fine, white to off-white, odorless, crystalline powder. It is soluble in water and in aqueous solutions, and essentially insoluble in common organic solvents.

Calcium

The empirical formula for calcium carbonate is CaCO3 and the molecular weight is 100.09.

Calcium carbonate is supplied as a calcium carbonate tablet, USP containing 1250 mg calcium carbonate (equivalent to 500 mg elemental calcium). Calcium carbonate is a fine, white, odorless, tasteless powder. It is stable and non-hygroscopic.

Calcium carbonate is formulated per USP standards to meet disintegration or dissolution, weight, purity, and potency requirements.

Inactive Ingredients

Actonel

Crospovidone, ferric oxide red, ferric oxide yellow, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide.

Calcium

Pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, FD&C Blue #2, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol 3350, hypromellose, Opaspray Light Blue, polysorbate 80.

What are the possible side effects of calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using this medication and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • chest pain;
  • difficulty or pain when swallowing;
  • pain or burning under the ribs or in the back;
  • new or worsening heartburn;
  • severe joint, bone, or muscle pain;
  • new or unusual pain in your thigh or hip; or
  • jaw pain, numbness, or...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Actonel with Calcium »

What are the precautions when taking risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate (Actonel with Calcium)?

Before taking risedronate with calcium, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to either of these drugs; or to other bisphosphonates (such as alendronate, etidronate, pamidronate); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: low or high blood calcium levels (hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia), inability to sit upright or stand for at least 30 minutes, esophagus problems (such as narrowing of the esophagus, achalasia), difficult or painful swallowing, kidney problems (such as severe kidney disease, kidney stones), stomach/intestinal disorders...

Read All Potential Precautions of Actonel with Calcium »


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Indications

Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) is indicated for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

Treatment of Osteoporosis

In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, Actonel increases BMD and reduces the incidence of vertebral fractures and a composite endpoint of nonvertebral osteoporosis-related fractures (see Clinical Studies). Osteoporosis may be confirmed by the presence or history of osteoporotic fracture, or by the finding of low bone mass (for example, at least 2 SD below the premenopausal mean).

Prevention of Osteoporosis

Actonel may be considered in postmenopausal women who are at risk of developing osteoporosis and for whom the desired clinical outcome is to maintain bone mass and to reduce the risk of fracture.

Factors such as family history of osteoporosis, previous fracture, smoking, BMD (at least 1 SD below the premenopausal mean), high bone turnover, thin body frame, Caucasian or Asian race, and early menopause are associated with an increased risk of developing osteoporosis and fractures. The presence of these risk factors may be important when considering the use of Actonel for prevention of osteoporosis.

The safety and effectiveness of Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) for the treatment of osteoporosis are based on clinical data of three years duration. The optimal duration of use has not been determined. All patients on bisphosphonate therapy should have the need for continued therapy re-evaluated on a periodic basis.

Dosage Administration

Treatment and Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE)

One 35 mg Actonel tablet orally, taken once-a-week (Day 1 of the 7-day treatment cycle)

Actonel should be taken at least 30 minutes before the first food or drink of the day other than water. Actonel should not be taken at the same time as other medications, including calcium.

To facilitate delivery to the stomach, Actonel should be swallowed while the patient is in an upright position and with a full glass of plain water (6 to 8 oz). Patients should not lie down for 30 minutes after taking the medication (see PRECAUTIONS, General). Actonel is not recommended for use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min). No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with a creatinine clearance ≥ 30 mL/min or in the elderly.

One 1250 mg calcium carbonate tablet (500 mg elemental calcium) orally, taken with food daily on each of the remaining six days (Days 2 through 7 of the 7-day treatment cycle)

The recommended total (diet and otherwise) daily calcium intake in postmenopausal women is 1200 mg of elemental calcium. If patients need calcium in excess of that provided by Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) , this should be taken with food at a separate time of day.

Patients should receive additional vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate (see PRECAUTIONS, General). Co-administration of calcium tablets and calcium-, aluminum-, and magnesium-containing medications may interfere with the absorption of Actonel (see DRUG INTERACTIONS).

Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) is not recommended for use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min). No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with a creatinine clearance ≥ 30 mL/min or in the elderly.

How Supplied

Actonel® with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) is supplied in blister packages containing a 28-day course of therapy.

Four Actonel Tablets:
35 mg film-coated, oval, orange tablets with RSN on 1 face and 35 mg on the other

Twenty-four Calcium Carbonate Tablets, USP:
1250 mg calcium carbonate (equivalent to 500 mg elemental calcium) film-coated, oval, light blue tablets with NE 2 engraved on both faces

NDC 0430-0475-14

Store at 20° - 25° C (68° - 77° F); excursions permitted between 15° - 30° C (59° - 86° F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Actonel manufactured by: Warner Chilcott Puerto Rico LLC, Manati, Puerto Rico 00674 or Norwich Pharmaceuticals, Inc., North Norwich, NY 13814. Calcium manufactured by: Norwich Pharmaceuticals, Inc. North Norwich, NY 13814. Marketed by: Warner Chilcott (US), LLC Rockaway, NJ 07866 1-800-521-8813. . Revised January 2011


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Side Effects

Actonel

Osteoporosis

Actonel has been studied in over 5700 patients enrolled in the Phase 3 glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis clinical trials and in postmenopausal osteoporosis trials of up to 3-years duration. The overall adverse event profile of Actonel 5 mg in these studies was similar to that of placebo. Most adverse events were either mild or moderate and did not lead to discontinuation from the study. The incidence of serious adverse events in the placebo group was 24.9% and in the Actonel 5 mg group was 26.3%. The percentage of patients who withdrew from the study due to adverse events was 14.4% and 13.5% for the placebo and Actonel 5 mg groups, respectively. Table 4 lists adverse events from the Phase 3 osteoporosis trials reported in ≥ 2% of patients and in more Actonel-treated patients than placebo-treated patients. Adverse events are shown without attribution of causality.

Table 4 : Adverse Events Occurring at a Frequency ≥ 2% and in More Actonel-Treated Patients than Placebo-Treated Patients Combined Phase 3 Osteoporosis Trials

Body System Placebo %
(N = 1914)
Actonel 5 mg
%
(N = 1916)
Body as a Whole
  Infection 29.7 29.9
  Back Pain 23.6 26.1
  Pain 13.1 13.6
  Abdominal Pain 9.4 11.6
  Neck Pain 4.5 5.3
  Asthenia 4.3 5.1
  Chest Pain 4.9 5.0
  Neoplasm 3.0 3.3
  Hernia 2.5 2.9
Cardiovascular
  Hypertension 9.0 10.0
  Cardiovascular Disorder 1.7 2.5
  Angina Pectoris 2.4 2.5
Digestive
  Nausea 10.7 10.9
  Diarrhea 9.6 10.6
  Flatulence 4.2 4.6
  Gastritis 2.3 2.5
  Gastrointestinal Disorder 2.1 2.3
  Rectal Disorder 1.9 2.2
  Tooth Disorder 2.0 2.1
Hemic and Lymphatic
  Ecchymosis 4.0 4.3
  Anemia 1.9 2.4
Musculoskeletal
  Arthralgia 21.1 23.7
  Joint Disorder 5.4 6.8
  Myalgia 6.3 6.6
  Bone Pain 4.3 4.6
  Bone Disorder 3.2 4.0
  Leg Cramps 2.6 3.5
  Bursitis 2.9 3.0
  Tendon Disorder 2.5 3.0
Nervous
  Depression 6.2 6.8
  Dizziness 5.4 6.4
  Insomnia 4.5 4.7
  Anxiety 3.0 4.3
  Neuralgia 3.5 3.8
  Vertigo 3.2 3.3
  Hypertonia 2.1 2.2
  Paresthesia 1.8 2.1
Respiratory
  Pharyngitis 5.0 5.8
  Rhinitis 5.0 5.7
  Dyspnea 3.2 3.8
  Pneumonia 2.6 3.1
Skin and Appendages
  Rash 7.2 7.7
  Pruritus 2.2 3.0
  Skin Carcinoma 1.8 2.0
Special Senses
  Cataract 5.4 5.9
  Conjunctivitis 2.8 3.1
  Otitis Media 2.4 2.5
Urogenital
  Urinary Tract Infection 9.7 10.9
  Cystitis 3.5 4.1

Duodenitis and glossitis have been reported uncommonly (0.1% to 1%). There have been rare reports ( < 0.1%) of abnormal liver function tests.

Laboratory Test Findings

Asymptomatic and small decreases were observed in serum calcium and phosphorus levels. Overall, mean decreases of 0.8% in serum calcium and of 2.7% in phosphorus were observed at 6 months in patients receiving Actonel. Throughout the Phase 3 studies, serum calcium levels below 8 mg/dL were observed in 18 patients, 9 (0.5%) in each treatment arm (Actonel and placebo). Serum phosphorus levels below 2 mg/dL were observed in 14 patients, 11 (0.6%) treated with Actonel and 3 (0.2%) treated with placebo.

Endoscopic Findings

Actonel clinical studies enrolled over 5700 patients, many with pre-existing gastrointestinal disease and concomitant use of NSAIDs or aspirin. Investigators were encouraged to perform endoscopies in any patients with moderate-to-severe gastrointestinal complaints, while maintaining the blind. These endoscopies were ultimately performed on equal numbers of patients between the treated and placebo groups [75 (14.5%) placebo; 75 (11.9%) Actonel]. Across treatment groups, the percentage of patients with normal esophageal, gastric, and duodenal mucosa on endoscopy was similar (20% placebo; 21% Actonel). The number of patients who withdrew from the studies due to the event prompting endoscopy was similar across treatment groups. Positive findings on endoscopy were also generally comparable across treatment groups. There was a higher number of reports of mild duodenitis in the Actonel group, however there were more duodenal ulcers in the placebo group. Clinically important findings (perforations, ulcers, or bleeding) among this symptomatic population were similar between groups (51% placebo; 39% Actonel).

Once-a-week Dosing

In a 1-year, double-blind, multicenter study comparing Actonel 5 mg daily and Actonel 35 mg once-a-week in postmenopausal women, the overall safety and tolerability profiles of the 2 oral dosing regimens were similar. Table 5 lists the adverse events in ≥ 2% of patients from this trial. Events are shown without attribution of causality.

Table 5: Adverse Events Occurring in ≥ 2% of Patients of Either Treatment Group in the Daily vs. Weekly Osteoporosis Treatment Study in Postmenopausal Women

Body System 5 mg Daily Actonel
%
(N = 480)
35 mg Weekly Actonel
%
(N = 485)
Body as a Whole
  Infection 19.0 20.6
  Accidental Injury 10.6 10.7
  Pain 7.7 9.9
  Back Pain 9.2 8.7
  Flu Syndrome 7.1 8.5
  Abdominal Pain 7.3 7.6
  Headache 7.3 7.2
  Overdose 6.9 6.8
  Asthenia 3.5 5.4
  Chest Pain 2.3 2.7
  Allergic Reaction 1.9 2.5
  Neoplasm 0.8 2.1
  Neck Pain 2.7 1.2
Cardiovascular System
  Hypertension 5.8 4.9
  Syncope 0.6 2.1
  Vasodilatation 2.3 1.4
Digestive System
  Constipation 12.5 12.2
  Dyspepsia 6.9 7.6
  Nausea 8.5 6.2
  Diarrhea 6.3 4.9
  Gastroenteritis 3.8 3.5
  Flatulence 3.3 3.1
  Colitis 0.8 2.5
  Gastrointestinal Disorder 1.9 2.5
  Vomiting 1.9 2.5
  Dry Mouth 2.5 1.4
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders
  Peripheral Edema 4.2 1.6
Musculoskeletal System
  Arthralgia 11.5 14.2
  Traumatic Bone Fracture 5.0 6.4
  Myalgia 4.6 6.2
  Arthritis 4.8 4.1
  Bursitis 1.3 2.5
  Bone Pain 2.9 1.4
Nervous System
  Dizziness 5.8 4.9
  Anxiety 0.6 2.7
  Depression 2.3 2.3
  Vertigo 2.1 1.6
Respiratory System
  Bronchitis 2.3 4.9
  Sinusitis 4.6 4.5
  Pharyngitis 4.6 2.9
  Cough Increased 3.1 2.5
  Pneumonia 0.8 2.5
  Rhinitis 2.3 2.1
Skin and Appendages
  Rash 3.1 4.1
  Pruritus 1.9 2.3
Special Senses
  Cataract 2.9 1.9
Urogenital System
  Urinary Tract Infection 2.9 5.2
Osteoporosis Prevention

There were no deaths in a 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Actonel 35 mg once-a-week for prevention of bone loss in 278 postmenopausal women without osteoporosis. More treated subjects on risedronate experienced arthralgia (risedronate 13.9%; placebo 7.8%), myalgia (risedronate 5.1%; placebo 2.1%), and nausea (risedronate 7.3%; placebo 4.3%) than subjects on placebo.

Post-marketing Experience

Very rare hypersensitivity and skin reactions have been reported, including angioedema, generalized rash and bullous skin reactions, some severe.

Musculoskeletal: bone, joint, or muscle pain, rarely described as severe or incapacitating (see PRECAUTIONS, Musculoskeletal Pain).

Very rare reactions of eye inflammation including iritis and uveitis have been reported. Osteonecrosis of the jaw has been reported very rarely (see PRECAUTIONS, General).

Calcium

Calcium carbonate may cause gastrointestinal adverse effects such as constipation, flatulence, nausea, abdominal pain, and bloating. Administration of calcium may increase the risk of kidney stones, particularly in patients with a history of this condition (see PRECAUTIONS).

Read the Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Interactions

Actonel

No specific drug-drug interaction studies were performed. Risedronate is not metabolized and does not induce or inhibit hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes (Cytochrome P450).

Calcium Supplements/Antacids

Co-administration of Actonel and calcium, antacids, or oral medications containing divalent cations will interfere with the absorption of Actonel.

Hormone Replacement Therapy

One study of about 500 early postmenopausal women has been conducted to date in which treatment with Actonel (5 mg/day) plus estrogen replacement therapy was compared to estrogen replacement therapy alone. Exposure to study drugs was approximately 12 to 18 months and the primary endpoint was change in BMD. If considered appropriate, Actonel may be used concomitantly with hormone replacement therapy.

Aspirin/Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

Of over 5700 patients enrolled in the Actonel Phase 3 osteoporosis studies, aspirin use was reported by 31% of patients, 24% of whom were regular users (3 or more days per week). Forty-eight percent of patients reported NSAID use, 21% of whom were regular users. Among regular aspirin or NSAID users, the incidence of upper gastrointestinal adverse experiences in Actoneltreated patients (24.5%) was similar to that in placebo-treated patients (24.8%).

H2 Blockers and Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)

Of over 5700 patients enrolled in the Actonel Phase 3 osteoporosis studies, 21% used H2 blockers and/or PPIs. Among these patients, the incidence of upper gastrointestinal adverse experiences in the Actonel-treated patients was similar to that in placebo-treated patients.

Calcium

Bisphosphonates

Oral bisphosphonates (such as risedronate, alendronate, etidronate, ibandronate): Decreased absorption of the bisphosphonate may occur when the bisphosphonate and calcium are taken together.

Thyroid hormones

Levothyroxine: Concomitant intake of levothyroxine and calcium carbonate was found to reduce levothyroxine absorption and increase serum thyrotropin levels.

Fluoroquinolones

Fluoroquinolones (such as ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and ofloxacin): Concomitant administration of a fluoroquinolone and calcium carbonate may decrease the absorption of the fluoroquinolone.

Systemic glucocorticoids

Calcium absorption is reduced when calcium carbonate is taken concomitantly with systemic glucocorticoids.

Tetracyclines

Tetracyclines (such as doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline): Concomitant administration of a tetracycline and calcium carbonate may decrease the absorption of the tetracycline.

Thiazide diuretics

Reduced urinary excretion of calcium has been reported during concomitant use of calcium carbonate and thiazide diuretics.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues (such as calcitriol, doxercalciferol, and paricalcitol): Absorption of calcium may be increased when calcium carbonate is given concomitantly with vitamin D analogues.

Iron

Calcium may interfere with the absorption of iron. Patients being treated for iron deficiency should take iron and calcium at different times of the day.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Actonel

Bisphosphonates are known to interfere with the use of bone-imaging agents. Specific studies with Actonel have not been performed.

Read the Actonel with Calcium Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

Learn More »


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Warnings

Actonel

Bisphosphonates may cause upper gastrointestinal disorders such as dysphagia, esophagitis, and esophageal or gastric ulcer (see PRECAUTIONS).

Calcium

See PRECAUTIONS

Precautions

General

Actonel

Hypocalcemia and other disturbances of bone and mineral metabolism should be effectively treated before starting Actonel therapy. Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is important in all patients. Actonel is not recommended for use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min).

Bisphosphonates have been associated with gastrointestinal disorders such as dysphagia, esophagitis, and esophageal or gastric ulcers. This association has been reported for bisphosphonates in postmarketing experience, but has not been found in most pre-approval clinical trials, including those conducted with Actonel. Patients should be advised that taking the medication according to the instructions is important to minimize the risk of these events. They should take Actonel with sufficient plain water (6 to 8 oz) to facilitate delivery to the stomach, and should not lie down for 30 minutes after taking the drug.

Osteonecrosis, primarily in the jaw, has been reported in patients treated with bisphosphonates. Most cases have been in cancer patients undergoing dental procedures such as tooth extraction, but some have occurred in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis or other diagnoses. Most reported cases have been in patients treated with bisphosphonates intravenously but some have been in patients treated orally.

For patients requiring dental procedures, there are no data available to suggest whether discontinuation of bisphosphonate treatment, prior to the procedure, reduces the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw. Clinical judgement should guide the management plan of each patient based on individual benefit/risk assessment.

Musculoskeletal Pain

In postmarketing experience, there have been infrequent reports of severe and occasionally incapacitating bone, joint, and/or muscle pain in patients taking bisphosphonates (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). The time to onset of symptoms varied from one day to several months after starting the drug. Most patients had relief of symptoms after stopping medication. A subset had recurrence of symptoms when rechallenged with the same drug or another bisphosphonate.

Atypical Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femoral Fractures:

Atypical, low-energy, or low trauma fractures of the femoral shaft have been reported in bisphosphonate-treated patients. These fractures can occur anywhere in the femoral shaft from just below the lesser trochanter to above the supracondylar flare and are traverse or short oblique in orientation without evidence of comminution. Causality has not been established as these fractures also occur in osteoporotic patients who have not been treated with bisphosphonates.

Atypical femur fractures most commonly occur with minimal or no trauma to the affected area. They may be bilateral and many patients report prodromal pain in the affected area, usually presenting as dull, aching thigh pain, weeks to months before a complete fracture occurs. A number of reports note that patients were also receiving treatment with glucocorticoids (e.g. prednisone) at the time of fracture.

Any patient with a history of bisphosphonate exposure who presents with thigh or groin pain should be suspected of having an atypical fracture and should be evaluated to rule out an incomplete femur fracture. Patients presenting with an atypical fracture should also be assessed for symptoms and signs of fracture in the contralateral limb. Interruption of bisphosphonate therapy should be considered, pending a risk/benefit assessment, on an individual basis.

Calcium

Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) should not be used to treat hypocalcemia. Total daily intake of calcium above 1500 mg has not demonstrated additional bone benefits while daily intake above 2000 mg has been associated with increased risk of adverse effects, including hypercalcemia and kidney stones.

Administration of calcium has been associated with a slight increase in the risk of kidney stones.

In patients with a history of kidney stones or hypercalciuria, metabolic assessment to seek treatable causes of these conditions is warranted. If administration of calcium tablets should be needed in these patients, urinary calcium excretion and other appropriate testing should be monitored periodically.

Patients with achlorhydria may have decreased absorption of calcium. Taking calcium with food enhances absorption.

Concomitant use of calcium-containing antacids should be monitored to avoid excessive intake of calcium.

Information for Patients

Actonel

The patient should be informed to pay particular attention to the dosing instructions as clinical benefits may be compromised by failure to take the drug according to instructions. Specifically, Actonel should be taken at least 30 minutes before the first food or drink of the day other than water.

To facilitate delivery to the stomach, and thus reduce the potential for esophageal irritation, patients should take Actonel while in an upright position (sitting or standing) with a full glass of plain water (6 to 8 oz). Patients should not lie down for 30 minutes after taking the medication (see PRECAUTIONS, General). Patients should not chew or suck on the tablet because of a potential for oropharyngeal irritation.

Patients should be instructed that if they develop symptoms of esophageal disease (such as difficulty or pain upon swallowing, retrosternal pain or severe persistent or worsening heartburn) they should consult their physician before continuing Actonel.

Patients should be instructed that if they miss a dose of Actonel 35 mg once-a-week, they should take 1 tablet on the morning after they remember and return to taking 1 tablet once-a-week, as originally scheduled on their chosen day. Patients should not take 2 tablets on the same day.

Patients should receive supplemental calcium and vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate (see PRECAUTIONS, General). Calcium supplements or calcium-, aluminum-, and magnesium-containing medications may interfere with the absorption of Actonel and should be taken at a different time of the day, as with food.

Weight-bearing exercise should be considered along with the modification of certain behavioral factors, such as excessive cigarette smoking, and/or alcohol consumption, if these factors exist.

Physicians should instruct their patients to read the PATIENT INFORMATION before starting therapy with Actonel 35 mg and to re-read it each time the prescription is renewed.

Patients should be reminded to give all of their healthcare providers an accurate medication history. Instruct patients to tell all of their healthcare providers that they are taking Actonel. Patients should be instructed that any time they have a medical problem they think may be from Actonel, they should talk to their doctor.

Calcium

Calcium should be used as an adjunct to osteoporosis therapies.

The patient should be informed to take the calcium tablets with food to facilitate calcium absorption.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

In a 104-week carcinogenicity study, rats were administered daily oral doses of risedronate up to 24 mg/kg/day (approximately 50 times the systemic exposure following a 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²). There were no significant drug-induced tumor findings in male or female rats. The high dose male group of 24 mg/kg/day was terminated early in the study (Week 93) due to excessive toxicity, and data from this group were not included in the statistical evaluation of the study results. In an 80-week carcinogenicity study, mice were administered daily oral doses up to 32 mg/kg/day (approximately 30 times the systemic exposure following a 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²). There were no significant drug-induced tumor findings in male or female mice.

Mutagenesis

Risedronate did not exhibit genetic toxicity in the following assays: In vitro bacterial mutagenesis in Salmonella and E. coli (Ames assay), mammalian cell mutagenesis in CHO/HGPRT assay, unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes and an assessment of chromosomal aberrations in vivo in rat bone marrow.

Impairment of Fertility

In female rats, ovulation was inhibited at an oral dose of risedronate of 16 mg/kg/day (approximately 30 times the systemic exposure following a 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²). Decreased implantation was noted in female rats treated with doses ≥ 7 mg/kg/day (14 times the systemic exposure following a 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²). In male rats, testicular and epididymal atrophy and inflammation were noted at 40 mg/kg/day (80 times the systemic exposure following a 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²). Testicular atrophy was also noted in male rats after 13 weeks of treatment at oral doses of 16 mg/kg/day (approximately 30 times the systemic exposure following a 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²). There was moderate-tosevere spermatid maturation block after 13 weeks in male dogs at an oral dose of 8 mg/kg/day (approximately 50 times the systemic exposure following a 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²).

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

Survival of neonates was decreased in rats treated during gestation with oral doses of risedronate ≥ 16 mg/kg/day (approximately 30 times the systemic exposure following a 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²). Body weight was decreased in neonates from dams treated with 80 mg/kg (approximately 160 times the 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²). In rats treated during gestation, the number of fetuses exhibiting incomplete ossification of sternebrae or skull was statistically significantly increased at 7.1 mg/kg/day (approximately 14 times the 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²). Both incomplete ossification and unossified sternebrae were increased in rats treated with oral doses ≥ 16 mg/kg/day (approximately 30 times the 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²). A low incidence of cleft palate was observed in fetuses from female rats treated with oral doses ≥ 3.2 mg/kg/day (approximately 20 times the 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²). The relevance of this finding to human use of Actonel is unclear. No significant fetal ossification effects were seen in rabbits treated with oral doses up to 10 mg/kg/day during gestation (40 times the 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²). However, in rabbits treated with 10 mg/kg/day, 1 of 14 litters were aborted and 1 of 14 litters were delivered prematurely.

Similar to other bisphosphonates, treatment during mating and gestation with doses as low as 3.2 mg/kg/day (approximately 20 times the 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area, mg/m²) has resulted in periparturient hypocalcemia and mortality in pregnant rats allowed to deliver.

Bisphosphonates are incorporated into the bone matrix, from which they are gradually released over periods of weeks to years. The amount of bisphosphonate incorporation into adult bone, and hence, the amount available for release back into the systemic circulation, is directly related to the dose and duration of bisphosphonate use. There are no data on fetal risk in humans. However, there is a theoretical risk of fetal harm, predominantly skeletal, if a woman becomes pregnant after completing a course of bisphosphonate therapy. The impact of variables such as time between cessation of bisphosphonate therapy to conception, the particular bisphosphonate used, and the route of administration (intravenous versus oral) on this risk has not been studied.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Actonel in pregnant women. Actonel should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the mother and fetus.

Nursing Women

Risedronate was detected in feeding pups exposed to lactating rats for a 24-hour period post-dosing, indicating a small degree of lacteal transfer. It is not known whether risedronate is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from bisphosphonates, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Actonel

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Actonel

Of the patients receiving Actonel in postmenopausal osteoporosis studies (see Clinical Studies), 47% were between 65 and 75 years of age, and 17% were over 75. No overall differences in efficacy or safety were observed between these patients and younger patients but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Calcium

There are no published data that specifically compare the efficacy and safety between postmenopausal women above and below the age of 65 years.

Use in Men

Actonel

The safety and effectiveness in men for the treatment of primary osteoporosis have not been established.


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OverDose

Actonel

Decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus following substantial overdose may be expected in some patients. Signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia may also occur in some of these patients. Milk or antacids containing calcium should be given to bind Actonel and reduce absorption of the drug.

In cases of substantial overdose, gastric lavage may be considered to remove unabsorbed drug. Standard procedures that are effective for treating hypocalcemia, including the administration of calcium intravenously, would be expected to restore physiologic amounts of ionized calcium and to relieve signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia.

Lethality after single oral doses was seen in female rats at 903 mg/kg and male rats at 1703 mg/kg. The minimum lethal dose in mice and rabbits was 4000 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg. These values represent > 1000 times the 35 mg/week human dose based on surface area (mg/m²).

Calcium

Because of its limited intestinal absorption, overdosage with calcium carbonate is unlikely. However, prolonged use of very high doses can lead to hypercalcemia. Clinical manifestations of hypercalcemia may include anorexia, thirst, nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, muscle weakness, fatigue, mental disturbances, polydipsia, polyuria, bone pain, nephrocalcinosis, renal calculi and in severe cases, cardiac arrhythmias.

Treatment: Calcium should be discontinued. Other therapies that may be contributing to the condition, such as thiazide diuretics, lithium, vitamin A, vitamin D and cardiac glycosides should also be discontinued. Gastric emptying of any residual calcium should be considered. Rehydration, and, according to severity, isolated or combined treatment with loop diuretics, bisphosphonates, calcitonin and corticosteroids should also be considered. Serum electrolytes, renal function and vital signs must be monitored.

ContrainDications

Actonel

Mechanism of Action

Actonel has an affinity for hydroxyapatite crystals in bone and acts as an antiresorptive agent. At the cellular level, Actonel inhibits osteoclasts. The osteoclasts adhere normally to the bone surface, but show evidence of reduced active resorption (e.g., lack of ruffled border). Histomorphometry in rats, dogs, and minipigs showed that Actonel treatment reduces bone turnover (activation frequency, i.e., the rate at which bone remodeling sites are activated) and bone resorption at remodeling sites.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Absorption after an oral dose is relatively rapid (tmax ~1 hour) and occurs throughout the upper gastrointestinal tract. The fraction of the dose absorbed is independent of dose over the range studied (single dose, 2.5 to 30 mg; multiple dose, 2.5 to 5 mg). Steady-state conditions in the serum are observed within 57 days of daily dosing. Mean absolute oral bioavailability of the 30 mg tablet is 0.63% (90% CI: 0.54% to 0.75%) and is comparable to a solution. The extent of absorption of a 30 mg dose (three 10 mg tablets) when administered 0.5 hours before breakfast is reduced by 55% compared to dosing in the fasting state (no food or drink for 10 hours prior to or 4 hours after dosing). Dosing 1 hour prior to breakfast reduces the extent of absorption by 30% compared to dosing in the fasting state. Dosing either 0.5 hours prior to breakfast or 2 hours after dinner (evening meal) results in a similar extent of absorption. Actonel is effective when administered at least 30 minutes before breakfast.

Distribution

The mean steady-state volume of distribution is 6.3 L/kg in humans. Human plasma protein binding of drug is about 24%. Preclinical studies in rats and dogs dosed intravenously with single doses of [14C] risedronate indicate that approximately 60% of the dose is distributed to bone. The remainder of the dose is excreted in the urine. After multiple oral dosing in rats, the uptake of risedronate in soft tissues was in the range of 0.001% to 0.01%.

Metabolism

There is no evidence of systemic metabolism of risedronate.

Elimination

Approximately half of the absorbed dose is excreted in urine within 24 hours, and 85% of an intravenous dose is recovered in the urine over 28 days. Mean renal clearance is 105 mL/min (CV = 34%) and mean total clearance is 122 mL/min (CV = 19%), with the difference primarily reflecting nonrenal clearance or clearance due to adsorption to bone. The renal clearance is not concentration dependent, and there is a linear relationship between renal clearance and creatinine clearance. Unabsorbed drug is eliminated unchanged in feces. Once risedronate is absorbed, the serum concentration-time profile is multi-phasic, with an initial half-life of about 1.5 hours and a terminal exponential half-life of 480 hours. This terminal half-life is hypothesized to represent the dissociation of risedronate from the surface of bone.

Calcium

Calcium is a major substrate for mineralization and has an antiresorptive effect on bone. Calcium suppresses PTH secretion and decreases bone turnover. Increased levels of PTH are known to contribute to age-related bone loss, especially at cortical sites, while increased bone turnover is an independent risk factor of fractures.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Calcium is released from calcium complexes during digestion in a soluble, ionized form, for absorption from the small intestine. Absorption can be by both passive and active mechanisms. Active absorption of calcium is highly dependent on vitamin D, and vitamin D deficiency decreases the absorption of calcium. As calcium intake increases, the active transfer mechanism becomes saturated and an increasing proportion of calcium is absorbed via passive diffusion. Absorption of calcium carbonate is dose-dependent, with fractional absorption being highest when at doses up to 500 mg. Absorption of calcium is also dependent on pH with reduced absorption in alkaline conditions. The absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate is increased when taken with food.

Distribution

Approximately 50% of calcium in the serum is in the physiologically active ionized form; about 10% is complexed to phosphate, citrate or other anions. The remaining 40% is bound to proteins, primarily albumin.

Elimination

Unabsorbed calcium from the small intestine is excreted in the feces. Renal excretion depends largely on glomerular filtration and calcium tubular reabsorption with more than 98% of calcium reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate. This process is regulated by active vitamin D and PTH.

Special Populations

Actonel

Pediatric

Risedronate pharmacokinetics have not been studied in patients < 18 years of age.

Gender

Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics following oral administration are similar in men and women.

Geriatric

Bioavailability and disposition are similar in elderly ( > 60 years of age) and younger subjects. No dosage adjustment is necessary.

Race

Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been studied.

Renal Insufficiency

Risedronate is excreted unchanged primarily via the kidney. As compared to persons with normal renal function, the renal clearance of risedronate was decreased by about 70% in patients with creatinine clearance of approximately 30 mL/min. Actonel is not recommended for use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) because of lack of clinical experience. No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with a creatinine clearance ≥ 30 mL/min.

Hepatic Insufficiency

No studies have been performed to assess risedronate's safety or efficacy in patients with hepatic impairment. Risedronate is not metabolized in rat, dog, and human liver preparations. Insignificant amounts ( < 0.1% of intravenous dose) of drug are excreted in the bile in rats. Therefore, dosage adjustment is unlikely to be needed in patients with hepatic impairment.

Calcium

Absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate is poor in patients with achlorhydria unless taken with food.

Gender

Absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate has not been adequately studied with respect to gender.

Geriatric

There are no clinically significant differences in bioavailability following administration of 1 g elemental calcium as calcium carbonate between young (20 to 27 years) and elderly (63 to 71 years) females.

Race

The effect of race on calcium absorption from oral calcium carbonate has not been studied.

Renal Insufficiency

Renal disease affects calcium homeostasis through its effects on vitamin D metabolism, phosphorus excretion, and PTH. Calcium should be administered cautiously to patients with renal disease (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) to avoid elevations of the calcium-phosphorus ion product (Ca x Phos) and the development of calcinosis.

Pharmacodynamics

Actonel

Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporokis in Postmenopausal Women

Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mass and increased fracture risk, most commonly at the spine, hip, and wrist.

The diagnosis can be confirmed by the finding of low bone mass, evidence of fracture on x-ray, a history of osteoporotic fracture, or height loss or kyphosis indicative of vertebral fracture.

Osteoporosis occurs in both men and women but is more common among women following menopause. In healthy humans, bone formation and resorption are closely linked; old bone is resorbed and replaced by newly-formed bone. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, bone resorption exceeds bone formation, leading to bone loss and increased risk of bone fracture. After menopause, the risk of fractures of the spine and hip increases; approximately 40% of 50 year-old women will experience an osteoporosis-related fracture during their remaining lifetimes. After experiencing 1 osteoporosis-related fracture, the risk of future fracture increases 5-fold compared to the risk among a non-fractured population.

Actonel treatment decreases the elevated rate of bone turnover that is typically seen in postmenopausal osteoporosis. In clinical trials, administration of Actonel to postmenopausal women resulted in decreases in biochemical markers of bone turnover, including urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine and urinary collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (markers of bone resorption) and serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase (a marker of bone formation). At the 5 mg dose, decreases in deoxypyridinoline/creatinine were evident within 14 days of treatment. Changes in bone formation markers were observed later than changes in resorption markers, as expected, due to the coupled nature of bone resorption and bone formation; decreases in bone specific alkaline phosphatase of about 20% were evident within 3 months of treatment. Bone turnover markers reached a nadir of about 40% below baseline values by the sixth month of treatment and remained stable with continued treatment for up to 3 years. Bone turnover is decreased as early as 14 days and maximally within about 6 months of treatment, with achievement of a new steady-state that more nearly approximates the rate of bone turnover seen in premenopausal women. In a 1-year study comparing daily versus weekly oral dosing regimens of Actonel for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, Actonel 5 mg daily and Actonel 35 mg once-a-week decreased urinary collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide by 60% and 61%, respectively. In addition, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was also reduced by 42% and 41% in the Actonel 5 mg daily and Actonel 35 mg once-a-week groups, respectively. Actonel is not an estrogen and does not have the benefits and risks of estrogen therapy.

As a result of the inhibition of bone resorption, asymptomatic and usually transient decreases from baseline in serum calcium ( < 1%) and serum phosphate ( < 3%) and compensatory increases in serum PTH levels ( < 30%) were observed within 6 months in patients in osteoporosis clinical trials. There were no significant differences in serum calcium, phosphate, or PTH levels between the Actonel and placebo groups at 3 years. In a 1-year study comparing daily versus weekly oral dosing regimens of Actonel in postmenopausal women, the mean changes from baseline at 12 months were similar between the Actonel 5 mg daily and Actonel 35 mg once-a-week groups, respectively, for serum calcium (0.4% and 0.7%), phosphate (-3.8% and -2.6%) and PTH (6.4% and 4.2%).

Calcium

Calcium administration decreases the elevated rate of bone turnover typically seen in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. In randomized, placebo controlled studies in postmenopausal women, calcium administration (500 mg to 1600 mg) decreased biochemical markers of bone turnover, including urine N-telopeptide, urine free pyridinoline (markers of bone resorption), alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin (markers of bone formation) relative to placebo treated women.

Calcium administration may transiently increase levels of serum calcium with compensatory reductions in serum PTH and an increase in urinary calcium. However, urinary and serum calcium levels usually remain within the normal reference range.

Clinical Studies

Actonel

Treatment of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women

The fracture efficacy of Actonel 5 mg daily in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis was demonstrated in 2 large, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies that enrolled a total of almost 4000 postmenopausal women under similar protocols. The Multinational study (VERT MN) (Actonel 5 mg, n = 408) was conducted primarily in Europe and Australia; a second study was conducted in North America (VERT NA) (Actonel 5 mg, n = 821). Patients were selected on the basis of radiographic evidence of previous vertebral fracture, and therefore, had established disease. The average number of prevalent vertebral fractures per patient at study entry was 4 in VERT MN, and 2.5 in VERT NA, with a broad range of baseline bone mineral density (BMD) levels. All patients in these studies received supplemental calcium 1000 mg/day. Patients with low vitamin D levels (approximately 40 nmol/L or less) also received supplemental vitamin D 500 IU/day.

Positive effects of Actonel treatment on BMD were also demonstrated in each of 2 large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (BMD MN and BMD NA) in which almost 1200 postmenopausal women (Actonel 5 mg, n = 394) were recruited on the basis of low lumbar spine bone mass (more than 2 SD below the premenopausal mean) rather than a history of vertebral fracture.

Actonel 35 mg once-a-week (n = 485) was shown to be therapeutically equivalent to Actonel 5 mg daily (n = 480) in a 1-year, double-blind, multicenter study of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. In the primary efficacy analkysis of completers, the mean increases from baseline in lumbar spine BMD at 1 year were 4.0% (3.7, 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]) in the 5 mg daily group (n = 391) and 3.9% (3.6, 4.3; 95% CI) in the 35 mg once-a-week group (n = 387) and the mean difference between 5 mg daily and 35 mg weekly was 0.1% (-0.42, 0.55; 95% CI). The results of the intent-to-treat analysis with the last observation carried forward were consistent with the primary efficacy analysis of completers. The 2 treatment groups were also similar with regard to BMD increases at other skeletal sites.

Effect on Vertebral Fractures

Fractures of previously undeformed vertebrae (new fractures) and worsening of pre-existing vertebral fractures were diagnosed radiographically; some of these fractures were also associated with symptoms (i.e., clinical fractures). Spinal radiographs were scheduled annually and prospectively planned analyses were based on the time to a patient's first diagnosed fracture. The primary endpoint for these studies was the incidence of new and worsening vertebral fractures across the period of 0 to 3 years. Actonel 5 mg daily significantly reduced the incidence of new and worsening vertebral fractures and of new vertebral fractures in both VERT NA and VERT MN at all time points (Table 1). The reduction in risk seen in the subgroup of patients who had 2 or more vertebral fractures at study entry was similar to that seen in the overall study population.

Table 1 : The Effect of Actonel on the Risk of Vertebral Fractures

VERT NA Proportion of Patients Absolute Risk Reduction (%) Relative Risk Reduction (%)
with Fracture (%)a
Placebo
n = 678
Actonel 5 mg
n = 696
New and Worsening
0 to 1 Year 7.2 3.9 3.3 49
0 to 2 Years 12.8 8.0 4.8 42
0 to 3 Years 18.5 13.9 4.6 33
New
0 to 1 Year 6.4 2.4 4.0 65
0 to 2 Years 11.7 5.8 5.9 55
0 to 3 Years 16.3 11.3 5.0 41
VERT MN Placebo
n = 346
Actonel 5 mg
n = 344
Absolute Risk Reduction (%) Relative Risk Reduction (%)
New and Worsening
0 to 1 Year 15.3 8.2 7.1 50
0 to 2 Years 28.3 13.9 14.4 56
0 to 3 Years 34.0 21.8 12.2 46
New
0 to 1 Year 13.3 5.6 7.7 61
0 to 2 Years 24.7 11.6 13.1 59
0 to 3 Years 29.0 18.1 10.9 49
a Calculated by Kaplan-Meier methodology
Effect on Osteoporosis-Related Nonvertebral Fractures

In VERT MN and VERT NA, a prospectively planned efficacy endpoint was defined consisting of all radiographically confirmed fractures of skeletal sites accepted as associated with osteoporosis. Fractures at these sites were collectively referred to as osteoporosis-related nonvertebral fractures. Actonel 5 mg daily significantly reduced the incidence of nonvertebral osteoporosis-related fractures over 3 years in VERT NA (8% versus 5%; relative risk reduction 39%) and reduced the fracture incidence in VERT MN from 16% to 11%. There was a significant reduction from 11% to 7% when the studies were combined, with a corresponding 36% reduction in relative risk. Figure 1 shows the overall results as well as the results at the individual skeletal sites for the combined studies.

Figure 1: Nonvertebral Osteoporosis-Related Fractures
Cumulative Incidence Over 3 Years
Combined VERT MN and VERT NA

Nonvertebral Osteoporosis-Related Fractures - Illustration
Effect on Height

In the two 3-year osteoporosis treatment studies, standing height was measured yearly by stadiometer. Both Actonel and placebo-treated groups lost height during the studies. Patients who received Actonel had a statistically significantly smaller loss of height than those who received placebo. In VERT MN, the median annual height change was -1.3 mm/yr in the Actonel 5 mg daily group compared to -2.4 mm/yr in the placebo group. In VERT NA, the median annual height change was -0.7 mm/yr in the Actonel 5 mg daily group compared to -1.1 mm/yr in the placebo group.

Effect on Bone Mineral Density

The results of 4 randomized, placebo-controlled trials in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (VERT MN, VERT NA, BMD MN, BMD NA) demonstrate that Actonel 5 mg daily increases BMD at the spine, hip, and wrist compared to the effects seen with placebo. Table 2 displays the significant increases in BMD seen at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, femoral trochanter, and midshaft radius in these trials compared to placebo. In both VERT studies (VERT MN and VERT NA), Actonel 5 mg daily produced increases in lumbar spine BMD that were progressive over the 3 years of treatment, and were statistically significant relative to baseline and to placebo at 6 months and at all later time points.

Table 2 : Mean Percent Increase in BMD from Baseline in Patients Taking Actonel 5 mg or Placebo at Endpointa

  VERT MNb VERT NAb BMD MNc BMD NAc
Placebo
n = 323
5 mg
n = 323
Placebo
n = 599
5 mg
n = 606
Placebo
n = 161
5 mg
n = 148
Placebo
n = 191
5 mg
n = 193
Lumbar Spine 1.0 6.6 0.8 5.0 0.0 4.0 0.2 4.8
Femoral Neck -1.4 1.6 -1.0 1.4 -1.1 1.3 0.1 2.4
Femoral Trochanter -1.9 3.9 -0.5 3.0 -0.6 2.5 1.3 4.0
Midshaft Radius -1.5* 0.2* -1.2* 0.1* ND ND
a The endpoint value is the value at the study's last time point for all patients who had BMD measured at that time; otherwise the last postbaseline BMD value prior to the study's last time point is used.
b The duration of the studies was 3 years.
c The duration of the studies was 1.5 to 2 years.
*BMD of the midshaft radius was measured in a subset of centers in VERT MN (placebo, n = 222; 5 mg, n = 214) and VERT NA (placebo, n = 310; 5 mg, n = 306)
ND = analysis not done
Histology/Histomorphometry

Bone biopsies from 110 postmenopausal women were obtained at endpoint. Patients had received daily Actonel (2.5 mg or 5 mg) or placebo for 2 to 3 years. Histologic evaluation (n = 103) showed no osteomalacia, impaired bone mineralization, or other adverse effects on bone in Actonel-treated women. These findings demonstrate that bone formed during Actonel administration is of normal quality. The histomorphometric parameter mineralizing surface, an index of bone turnover, was assessed based upon baseline and post-treatment biopsy samples from 23 patients treated with Actonel 5 mg and 21 treated with placebo. Mineralizing surface decreased moderately in Actonel-treated patients (median percent change: Actonel 5 mg, -74%; placebo, -21%), consistent with the known effects of treatment on bone turnover.

Prevention of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women

Actonel 5 mg daily prevented bone loss in a majority of postmenopausal women (age range 42 to 63 years) within 3 years of menopause in a 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 383 patients (Actonel 5 mg, n = 129). All patients in this study received supplemental calcium 1000 mg/day. Increases in BMD were observed as early as 3 months following initiation of Actonel treatment. Actonel 5 mg produced significant mean increases in BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter compared to placebo at the end of the study (Figure 2). Actonel 5 mg daily was also effective in patients with lower baseline lumbar spine BMD (more than 1 SD below the premenopausal mean) and in those with normal baseline lumbar spine BMD. Bone mineral density at the distal radius decreased in both Actonel and placebo-treated women following 1 year of treatment.

Figure 2 :Change in BMD from Baseline2-Year Prevention Study

Change in BMD from Baseline2-Year Prevention Study - Illustration

Actonel 35 mg once-a-week prevented bone loss in postmenopausal women (age range 44 to 64 years) without osteoporosis in a 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 278 patients (Actonel 35 mg, n = 136). All patients were supplemented with 1000 mg elemental calcium and 400 IU vitamin D per day. The primary efficacy measure was the percent change in lumbar spine BMD from baseline after 1 year of treatment using LOCF (last observation carried forward). Actonel 35 mg once-a-week resulted in a statistically significant mean difference from placebo in lumbar spine BMD of +2.9% (least square mean for risedronate +1.83%; placebo -1.05%). Actonel 35 mg once-a-week also showed a statistically significant mean difference from placebo in BMD at the total proximal femur of +1.5% (risedronate +1.01%; placebo -0.53%), femoral neck of +1.2% (risedronate +0.22%; placebo -1.00%), and trochanter of +1.8% (risedronate +1.07%; placebo -0.74%).

Combined Administration with Hormone Replacement Therapy

The effects of combining Actonel 5 mg daily with conjugated estrogen 0.625 mg daily (n = 263) were compared to the effects of conjugated estrogen alone (n = 261) in a 1-year, randomized, double-blind study of women ages 37 to 82 years, who were on average 14 years postmenopausal. The BMD results for this study are presented in Table 3.

Table 3 : Percent Change from Baseline in BMD After 1 Year of Treatment

  Estrogen 0.625 mg
n = 261
ACTONEL 5 mg ± Estrogen 0.625 mg
n = 263
Lumbar Spine 4.6 ± 0.20 5.2 ± 0.23
Femoral Neck 1.8 ± 0.25 2.7 ± 0.25
Femoral Trochanter 3.2 ± 0.28 3.7 ± 0.25
Midshaft Radius 0.4 ± 0.14 0.7 ± 0.17
Distal Radius 1.7 ± 0.24 1.6 ± 0.28
Values shown are mean (± SEM) percent change from baseline.
Histology/Histomorphometry

Bone biopsies from 53 postmenopausal women were obtained at endpoint. Patients had received Actonel 5 mg plus estrogen or estrogen alone once daily for 1 year. Histologic evaluation (n = 47) demonstrated that the bone of patients treated with Actonel plus estrogen was of normal lamellar structure and normal mineralization. The histomorphometric parameter mineralizing surface, a measure of bone turnover, was assessed based upon baseline and post-treatment biopsy samples from 12 patients treated with Actonel plus estrogen and 12 treated with estrogen alone. Mineralizing surface decreased in both treatment groups (median percent change: Actonel plus estrogen, -79%; estrogen alone, -50%), consistent with the known effects of these agents on bone turnover.

Animal Pharmacology And/Or Toxicology

Actonel

Risedronate demonstrated potent anti-osteoclast, antiresorptive activity in ovariectomized rats and minipigs. Bone mass and biomechanical strength were increased dose-dependently at oral doses up to 4 and 25 times the human recommended oral dose of 35 mg/week based on surface area, (mg/m²) for rats and minipigs, respectively. Risedronate treatment maintained the positive correlation between BMD and bone strength and did not have a negative effect on bone structure or mineralization. In intact dogs, risedronate induced positive bone balance at the level of the bone remodeling unit at oral doses ranging from 0.35 to 1.4 times the human 35 mg/week dose based on surface area (mg/m²).

In dogs treated with an oral dose of 1 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the human 35 mg/week dose based on surface area, mg/m²), risedronate caused a delay in fracture healing of the radius. The observed delay in fracture healing is similar to other bisphosphonates. This effect did not occur at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.5 times the human 35 mg/week dose based on surface area, mg/m²).

The Schenk rat assay, based on histologic examination of the epiphyses of growing rats after drug treatment, demonstrated that risedronate did not interfere with bone mineralization even at the highest dose tested (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously), which was approximately 3500 times the lowest antiresorptive dose (1.5 mcg/kg/day in this model) and approximately 8 times the human 35 mg/week dose based on surface area (mg/m²). This indicates that Actonel administered at the therapeutic dose is unlikely to induce osteomalacia.

Calcium

Published studies have demonstrated that changes in the dietary intake of calcium affect bone growth and skeletal development in animals, as well as bone loss in animal models of estrogendepletion/ovariectomy and aging.


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Clinical Pharamacology

Actonel

Mechanism of Action

Actonel has an affinity for hydroxyapatite crystals in bone and acts as an antiresorptive agent. At the cellular level, Actonel inhibits osteoclasts. The osteoclasts adhere normally to the bone surface, but show evidence of reduced active resorption (e.g., lack of ruffled border). Histomorphometry in rats, dogs, and minipigs showed that Actonel treatment reduces bone turnover (activation frequency, i.e., the rate at which bone remodeling sites are activated) and bone resorption at remodeling sites.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Absorption after an oral dose is relatively rapid (tmax ~1 hour) and occurs throughout the upper gastrointestinal tract. The fraction of the dose absorbed is independent of dose over the range studied (single dose, 2.5 to 30 mg; multiple dose, 2.5 to 5 mg). Steady-state conditions in the serum are observed within 57 days of daily dosing. Mean absolute oral bioavailability of the 30 mg tablet is 0.63% (90% CI: 0.54% to 0.75%) and is comparable to a solution. The extent of absorption of a 30 mg dose (three 10 mg tablets) when administered 0.5 hours before breakfast is reduced by 55% compared to dosing in the fasting state (no food or drink for 10 hours prior to or 4 hours after dosing). Dosing 1 hour prior to breakfast reduces the extent of absorption by 30% compared to dosing in the fasting state. Dosing either 0.5 hours prior to breakfast or 2 hours after dinner (evening meal) results in a similar extent of absorption. Actonel is effective when administered at least 30 minutes before breakfast.

Distribution

The mean steady-state volume of distribution is 6.3 L/kg in humans. Human plasma protein binding of drug is about 24%. Preclinical studies in rats and dogs dosed intravenously with single doses of [14C] risedronate indicate that approximately 60% of the dose is distributed to bone. The remainder of the dose is excreted in the urine. After multiple oral dosing in rats, the uptake of risedronate in soft tissues was in the range of 0.001% to 0.01%.

Metabolism

There is no evidence of systemic metabolism of risedronate.

Elimination

Approximately half of the absorbed dose is excreted in urine within 24 hours, and 85% of an intravenous dose is recovered in the urine over 28 days. Mean renal clearance is 105 mL/min (CV = 34%) and mean total clearance is 122 mL/min (CV = 19%), with the difference primarily reflecting nonrenal clearance or clearance due to adsorption to bone. The renal clearance is not concentration dependent, and there is a linear relationship between renal clearance and creatinine clearance. Unabsorbed drug is eliminated unchanged in feces. Once risedronate is absorbed, the serum concentration-time profile is multi-phasic, with an initial half-life of about 1.5 hours and a terminal exponential half-life of 480 hours. This terminal half-life is hypothesized to represent the dissociation of risedronate from the surface of bone.

Calcium

Calcium is a major substrate for mineralization and has an antiresorptive effect on bone. Calcium suppresses PTH secretion and decreases bone turnover. Increased levels of PTH are known to contribute to age-related bone loss, especially at cortical sites, while increased bone turnover is an independent risk factor of fractures.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Calcium is released from calcium complexes during digestion in a soluble, ionized form, for absorption from the small intestine. Absorption can be by both passive and active mechanisms. Active absorption of calcium is highly dependent on vitamin D, and vitamin D deficiency decreases the absorption of calcium. As calcium intake increases, the active transfer mechanism becomes saturated and an increasing proportion of calcium is absorbed via passive diffusion. Absorption of calcium carbonate is dose-dependent, with fractional absorption being highest when at doses up to 500 mg. Absorption of calcium is also dependent on pH with reduced absorption in alkaline conditions. The absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate is increased when taken with food.

Distribution

Approximately 50% of calcium in the serum is in the physiologically active ionized form; about 10% is complexed to phosphate, citrate or other anions. The remaining 40% is bound to proteins, primarily albumin.

Elimination

Unabsorbed calcium from the small intestine is excreted in the feces. Renal excretion depends largely on glomerular filtration and calcium tubular reabsorption with more than 98% of calcium reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate. This process is regulated by active vitamin D and PTH.

Special Populations

Actonel

Pediatric

Risedronate pharmacokinetics have not been studied in patients < 18 years of age.

Gender

Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics following oral administration are similar in men and women.

Geriatric

Bioavailability and disposition are similar in elderly ( > 60 years of age) and younger subjects. No dosage adjustment is necessary.

Race

Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been studied.

Renal Insufficiency

Risedronate is excreted unchanged primarily via the kidney. As compared to persons with normal renal function, the renal clearance of risedronate was decreased by about 70% in patients with creatinine clearance of approximately 30 mL/min. Actonel is not recommended for use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) because of lack of clinical experience. No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with a creatinine clearance ≥ 30 mL/min.

Hepatic Insufficiency

No studies have been performed to assess risedronate's safety or efficacy in patients with hepatic impairment. Risedronate is not metabolized in rat, dog, and human liver preparations. Insignificant amounts ( < 0.1% of intravenous dose) of drug are excreted in the bile in rats. Therefore, dosage adjustment is unlikely to be needed in patients with hepatic impairment.

Calcium

Absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate is poor in patients with achlorhydria unless taken with food.

Gender

Absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate has not been adequately studied with respect to gender.

Geriatric

There are no clinically significant differences in bioavailability following administration of 1 g elemental calcium as calcium carbonate between young (20 to 27 years) and elderly (63 to 71 years) females.

Race

The effect of race on calcium absorption from oral calcium carbonate has not been studied.

Renal Insufficiency

Renal disease affects calcium homeostasis through its effects on vitamin D metabolism, phosphorus excretion, and PTH. Calcium should be administered cautiously to patients with renal disease (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) to avoid elevations of the calcium-phosphorus ion product (Ca x Phos) and the development of calcinosis.

Pharmacodynamics

Actonel

Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporokis in Postmenopausal Women

Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mass and increased fracture risk, most commonly at the spine, hip, and wrist.

The diagnosis can be confirmed by the finding of low bone mass, evidence of fracture on x-ray, a history of osteoporotic fracture, or height loss or kyphosis indicative of vertebral fracture.

Osteoporosis occurs in both men and women but is more common among women following menopause. In healthy humans, bone formation and resorption are closely linked; old bone is resorbed and replaced by newly-formed bone. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, bone resorption exceeds bone formation, leading to bone loss and increased risk of bone fracture. After menopause, the risk of fractures of the spine and hip increases; approximately 40% of 50 year-old women will experience an osteoporosis-related fracture during their remaining lifetimes. After experiencing 1 osteoporosis-related fracture, the risk of future fracture increases 5-fold compared to the risk among a non-fractured population.

Actonel treatment decreases the elevated rate of bone turnover that is typically seen in postmenopausal osteoporosis. In clinical trials, administration of Actonel to postmenopausal women resulted in decreases in biochemical markers of bone turnover, including urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine and urinary collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (markers of bone resorption) and serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase (a marker of bone formation). At the 5 mg dose, decreases in deoxypyridinoline/creatinine were evident within 14 days of treatment. Changes in bone formation markers were observed later than changes in resorption markers, as expected, due to the coupled nature of bone resorption and bone formation; decreases in bone specific alkaline phosphatase of about 20% were evident within 3 months of treatment. Bone turnover markers reached a nadir of about 40% below baseline values by the sixth month of treatment and remained stable with continued treatment for up to 3 years. Bone turnover is decreased as early as 14 days and maximally within about 6 months of treatment, with achievement of a new steady-state that more nearly approximates the rate of bone turnover seen in premenopausal women. In a 1-year study comparing daily versus weekly oral dosing regimens of Actonel for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, Actonel 5 mg daily and Actonel 35 mg once-a-week decreased urinary collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide by 60% and 61%, respectively. In addition, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was also reduced by 42% and 41% in the Actonel 5 mg daily and Actonel 35 mg once-a-week groups, respectively. Actonel is not an estrogen and does not have the benefits and risks of estrogen therapy.

As a result of the inhibition of bone resorption, asymptomatic and usually transient decreases from baseline in serum calcium ( < 1%) and serum phosphate ( < 3%) and compensatory increases in serum PTH levels ( < 30%) were observed within 6 months in patients in osteoporosis clinical trials. There were no significant differences in serum calcium, phosphate, or PTH levels between the Actonel and placebo groups at 3 years. In a 1-year study comparing daily versus weekly oral dosing regimens of Actonel in postmenopausal women, the mean changes from baseline at 12 months were similar between the Actonel 5 mg daily and Actonel 35 mg once-a-week groups, respectively, for serum calcium (0.4% and 0.7%), phosphate (-3.8% and -2.6%) and PTH (6.4% and 4.2%).

Calcium

Calcium administration decreases the elevated rate of bone turnover typically seen in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. In randomized, placebo controlled studies in postmenopausal women, calcium administration (500 mg to 1600 mg) decreased biochemical markers of bone turnover, including urine N-telopeptide, urine free pyridinoline (markers of bone resorption), alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin (markers of bone formation) relative to placebo treated women.

Calcium administration may transiently increase levels of serum calcium with compensatory reductions in serum PTH and an increase in urinary calcium. However, urinary and serum calcium levels usually remain within the normal reference range.

Clinical Studies

Actonel

Treatment of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women

The fracture efficacy of Actonel 5 mg daily in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis was demonstrated in 2 large, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies that enrolled a total of almost 4000 postmenopausal women under similar protocols. The Multinational study (VERT MN) (Actonel 5 mg, n = 408) was conducted primarily in Europe and Australia; a second study was conducted in North America (VERT NA) (Actonel 5 mg, n = 821). Patients were selected on the basis of radiographic evidence of previous vertebral fracture, and therefore, had established disease. The average number of prevalent vertebral fractures per patient at study entry was 4 in VERT MN, and 2.5 in VERT NA, with a broad range of baseline bone mineral density (BMD) levels. All patients in these studies received supplemental calcium 1000 mg/day. Patients with low vitamin D levels (approximately 40 nmol/L or less) also received supplemental vitamin D 500 IU/day.

Positive effects of Actonel treatment on BMD were also demonstrated in each of 2 large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (BMD MN and BMD NA) in which almost 1200 postmenopausal women (Actonel 5 mg, n = 394) were recruited on the basis of low lumbar spine bone mass (more than 2 SD below the premenopausal mean) rather than a history of vertebral fracture.

Actonel 35 mg once-a-week (n = 485) was shown to be therapeutically equivalent to Actonel 5 mg daily (n = 480) in a 1-year, double-blind, multicenter study of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. In the primary efficacy analkysis of completers, the mean increases from baseline in lumbar spine BMD at 1 year were 4.0% (3.7, 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]) in the 5 mg daily group (n = 391) and 3.9% (3.6, 4.3; 95% CI) in the 35 mg once-a-week group (n = 387) and the mean difference between 5 mg daily and 35 mg weekly was 0.1% (-0.42, 0.55; 95% CI). The results of the intent-to-treat analysis with the last observation carried forward were consistent with the primary efficacy analysis of completers. The 2 treatment groups were also similar with regard to BMD increases at other skeletal sites.

Effect on Vertebral Fractures

Fractures of previously undeformed vertebrae (new fractures) and worsening of pre-existing vertebral fractures were diagnosed radiographically; some of these fractures were also associated with symptoms (i.e., clinical fractures). Spinal radiographs were scheduled annually and prospectively planned analyses were based on the time to a patient's first diagnosed fracture. The primary endpoint for these studies was the incidence of new and worsening vertebral fractures across the period of 0 to 3 years. Actonel 5 mg daily significantly reduced the incidence of new and worsening vertebral fractures and of new vertebral fractures in both VERT NA and VERT MN at all time points (Table 1). The reduction in risk seen in the subgroup of patients who had 2 or more vertebral fractures at study entry was similar to that seen in the overall study population.

Table 1 : The Effect of Actonel on the Risk of Vertebral Fractures

VERT NA Proportion of Patients Absolute Risk Reduction (%) Relative Risk Reduction (%)
with Fracture (%)a
Placebo
n = 678
Actonel 5 mg
n = 696
New and Worsening
0 to 1 Year 7.2 3.9 3.3 49
0 to 2 Years 12.8 8.0 4.8 42
0 to 3 Years 18.5 13.9 4.6 33
New
0 to 1 Year 6.4 2.4 4.0 65
0 to 2 Years 11.7 5.8 5.9 55
0 to 3 Years 16.3 11.3 5.0 41
VERT MN Placebo
n = 346
Actonel 5 mg
n = 344
Absolute Risk Reduction (%) Relative Risk Reduction (%)
New and Worsening
0 to 1 Year 15.3 8.2 7.1 50
0 to 2 Years 28.3 13.9 14.4 56
0 to 3 Years 34.0 21.8 12.2 46
New
0 to 1 Year 13.3 5.6 7.7 61
0 to 2 Years 24.7 11.6 13.1 59
0 to 3 Years 29.0 18.1 10.9 49
a Calculated by Kaplan-Meier methodology
Effect on Osteoporosis-Related Nonvertebral Fractures

In VERT MN and VERT NA, a prospectively planned efficacy endpoint was defined consisting of all radiographically confirmed fractures of skeletal sites accepted as associated with osteoporosis. Fractures at these sites were collectively referred to as osteoporosis-related nonvertebral fractures. Actonel 5 mg daily significantly reduced the incidence of nonvertebral osteoporosis-related fractures over 3 years in VERT NA (8% versus 5%; relative risk reduction 39%) and reduced the fracture incidence in VERT MN from 16% to 11%. There was a significant reduction from 11% to 7% when the studies were combined, with a corresponding 36% reduction in relative risk. Figure 1 shows the overall results as well as the results at the individual skeletal sites for the combined studies.

Figure 1: Nonvertebral Osteoporosis-Related Fractures
Cumulative Incidence Over 3 Years
Combined VERT MN and VERT NA

Nonvertebral Osteoporosis-Related Fractures - Illustration
Effect on Height

In the two 3-year osteoporosis treatment studies, standing height was measured yearly by stadiometer. Both Actonel and placebo-treated groups lost height during the studies. Patients who received Actonel had a statistically significantly smaller loss of height than those who received placebo. In VERT MN, the median annual height change was -1.3 mm/yr in the Actonel 5 mg daily group compared to -2.4 mm/yr in the placebo group. In VERT NA, the median annual height change was -0.7 mm/yr in the Actonel 5 mg daily group compared to -1.1 mm/yr in the placebo group.

Effect on Bone Mineral Density

The results of 4 randomized, placebo-controlled trials in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (VERT MN, VERT NA, BMD MN, BMD NA) demonstrate that Actonel 5 mg daily increases BMD at the spine, hip, and wrist compared to the effects seen with placebo. Table 2 displays the significant increases in BMD seen at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, femoral trochanter, and midshaft radius in these trials compared to placebo. In both VERT studies (VERT MN and VERT NA), Actonel 5 mg daily produced increases in lumbar spine BMD that were progressive over the 3 years of treatment, and were statistically significant relative to baseline and to placebo at 6 months and at all later time points.

Table 2 : Mean Percent Increase in BMD from Baseline in Patients Taking Actonel 5 mg or Placebo at Endpointa

  VERT MNb VERT NAb BMD MNc BMD NAc
Placebo
n = 323
5 mg
n = 323
Placebo
n = 599
5 mg
n = 606
Placebo
n = 161
5 mg
n = 148
Placebo
n = 191
5 mg
n = 193
Lumbar Spine 1.0 6.6 0.8 5.0 0.0 4.0 0.2 4.8
Femoral Neck -1.4 1.6 -1.0 1.4 -1.1 1.3 0.1 2.4
Femoral Trochanter -1.9 3.9 -0.5 3.0 -0.6 2.5 1.3 4.0
Midshaft Radius -1.5* 0.2* -1.2* 0.1* ND ND
a The endpoint value is the value at the study's last time point for all patients who had BMD measured at that time; otherwise the last postbaseline BMD value prior to the study's last time point is used.
b The duration of the studies was 3 years.
c The duration of the studies was 1.5 to 2 years.
*BMD of the midshaft radius was measured in a subset of centers in VERT MN (placebo, n = 222; 5 mg, n = 214) and VERT NA (placebo, n = 310; 5 mg, n = 306)
ND = analysis not done
Histology/Histomorphometry

Bone biopsies from 110 postmenopausal women were obtained at endpoint. Patients had received daily Actonel (2.5 mg or 5 mg) or placebo for 2 to 3 years. Histologic evaluation (n = 103) showed no osteomalacia, impaired bone mineralization, or other adverse effects on bone in Actonel-treated women. These findings demonstrate that bone formed during Actonel administration is of normal quality. The histomorphometric parameter mineralizing surface, an index of bone turnover, was assessed based upon baseline and post-treatment biopsy samples from 23 patients treated with Actonel 5 mg and 21 treated with placebo. Mineralizing surface decreased moderately in Actonel-treated patients (median percent change: Actonel 5 mg, -74%; placebo, -21%), consistent with the known effects of treatment on bone turnover.

Prevention of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women

Actonel 5 mg daily prevented bone loss in a majority of postmenopausal women (age range 42 to 63 years) within 3 years of menopause in a 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 383 patients (Actonel 5 mg, n = 129). All patients in this study received supplemental calcium 1000 mg/day. Increases in BMD were observed as early as 3 months following initiation of Actonel treatment. Actonel 5 mg produced significant mean increases in BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter compared to placebo at the end of the study (Figure 2). Actonel 5 mg daily was also effective in patients with lower baseline lumbar spine BMD (more than 1 SD below the premenopausal mean) and in those with normal baseline lumbar spine BMD. Bone mineral density at the distal radius decreased in both Actonel and placebo-treated women following 1 year of treatment.

Figure 2 :Change in BMD from Baseline2-Year Prevention Study

Change in BMD from Baseline2-Year Prevention Study - Illustration

Actonel 35 mg once-a-week prevented bone loss in postmenopausal women (age range 44 to 64 years) without osteoporosis in a 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 278 patients (Actonel 35 mg, n = 136). All patients were supplemented with 1000 mg elemental calcium and 400 IU vitamin D per day. The primary efficacy measure was the percent change in lumbar spine BMD from baseline after 1 year of treatment using LOCF (last observation carried forward). Actonel 35 mg once-a-week resulted in a statistically significant mean difference from placebo in lumbar spine BMD of +2.9% (least square mean for risedronate +1.83%; placebo -1.05%). Actonel 35 mg once-a-week also showed a statistically significant mean difference from placebo in BMD at the total proximal femur of +1.5% (risedronate +1.01%; placebo -0.53%), femoral neck of +1.2% (risedronate +0.22%; placebo -1.00%), and trochanter of +1.8% (risedronate +1.07%; placebo -0.74%).

Combined Administration with Hormone Replacement Therapy

The effects of combining Actonel 5 mg daily with conjugated estrogen 0.625 mg daily (n = 263) were compared to the effects of conjugated estrogen alone (n = 261) in a 1-year, randomized, double-blind study of women ages 37 to 82 years, who were on average 14 years postmenopausal. The BMD results for this study are presented in Table 3.

Table 3 : Percent Change from Baseline in BMD After 1 Year of Treatment

  Estrogen 0.625 mg
n = 261
ACTONEL 5 mg ± Estrogen 0.625 mg
n = 263
Lumbar Spine 4.6 ± 0.20 5.2 ± 0.23
Femoral Neck 1.8 ± 0.25 2.7 ± 0.25
Femoral Trochanter 3.2 ± 0.28 3.7 ± 0.25
Midshaft Radius 0.4 ± 0.14 0.7 ± 0.17
Distal Radius 1.7 ± 0.24 1.6 ± 0.28
Values shown are mean (± SEM) percent change from baseline.
Histology/Histomorphometry

Bone biopsies from 53 postmenopausal women were obtained at endpoint. Patients had received Actonel 5 mg plus estrogen or estrogen alone once daily for 1 year. Histologic evaluation (n = 47) demonstrated that the bone of patients treated with Actonel plus estrogen was of normal lamellar structure and normal mineralization. The histomorphometric parameter mineralizing surface, a measure of bone turnover, was assessed based upon baseline and post-treatment biopsy samples from 12 patients treated with Actonel plus estrogen and 12 treated with estrogen alone. Mineralizing surface decreased in both treatment groups (median percent change: Actonel plus estrogen, -79%; estrogen alone, -50%), consistent with the known effects of these agents on bone turnover.

Animal Pharmacology And/Or Toxicology

Actonel

Risedronate demonstrated potent anti-osteoclast, antiresorptive activity in ovariectomized rats and minipigs. Bone mass and biomechanical strength were increased dose-dependently at oral doses up to 4 and 25 times the human recommended oral dose of 35 mg/week based on surface area, (mg/m²) for rats and minipigs, respectively. Risedronate treatment maintained the positive correlation between BMD and bone strength and did not have a negative effect on bone structure or mineralization. In intact dogs, risedronate induced positive bone balance at the level of the bone remodeling unit at oral doses ranging from 0.35 to 1.4 times the human 35 mg/week dose based on surface area (mg/m²).

In dogs treated with an oral dose of 1 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the human 35 mg/week dose based on surface area, mg/m²), risedronate caused a delay in fracture healing of the radius. The observed delay in fracture healing is similar to other bisphosphonates. This effect did not occur at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.5 times the human 35 mg/week dose based on surface area, mg/m²).

The Schenk rat assay, based on histologic examination of the epiphyses of growing rats after drug treatment, demonstrated that risedronate did not interfere with bone mineralization even at the highest dose tested (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously), which was approximately 3500 times the lowest antiresorptive dose (1.5 mcg/kg/day in this model) and approximately 8 times the human 35 mg/week dose based on surface area (mg/m²). This indicates that Actonel administered at the therapeutic dose is unlikely to induce osteomalacia.

Calcium

Published studies have demonstrated that changes in the dietary intake of calcium affect bone growth and skeletal development in animals, as well as bone loss in animal models of estrogendepletion/ovariectomy and aging.


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Patient Information

Medication Guide

Actonel®
(AK-toh-nel) with Calcium (risedronate sodium and calcium carbonate) Tablets

Read the Medication Guide that comes with Actonel® with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) before you start taking it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking with your doctor about your medical condition or treatment. Talk to your doctor if you have any questions about Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) .

What is the most important information I should know about Actonel with Calcium?

Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) can cause serious side effects including:

  1. Esophagus problems
  2. Low calcium levels in your blood (hypocalcemia)
  3. Severe jaw bone problems (osteonecrosis)
  4. Bone, joint, or muscle pain
  5. Unusual thigh bone fractures

1. Esophagus problems.

Some people who take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) may develop problems in the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth and the stomach). These problems include irritation, inflammation, or ulcers of the esophagus which may sometimes bleed.

  • It is important that you take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) exactly as prescribed to help lower your chance of getting esophagus problems. (See the section “How should I take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) ?”)
  • Stop taking Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) and call your doctor right away if you get chest pain, new or worsening heartburn, or have trouble or pain when you swallow.

2. Low calcium levels in your blood (hypocalcemia).

Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) may lower the calcium levels in your blood. If you have low blood calcium before you start taking Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) , it may get worse during treatment. Your low blood calcium must be treated before you take Actonel with Calcium. Most people with low blood calcium levels do not have symptoms, but some people may have symptoms. Call your doctor right away if you have symptoms of low blood calcium such as:

  • Spasms, twitches, or cramps in your muscles
  • Numbness or tingling in your fingers, toes, or around your mouth

Your doctor may prescribe calcium and vitamin D to help prevent low calcium levels in your blood, while you take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) . Take calcium and vitamin D as your doctor tells you to.

3. Severe jaw bone problems (osteonecrosis).

Severe jaw bone problems may happen when you take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) . Your doctor should examine your mouth before you start Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) . Your doctor may tell you to see your dentist before you start Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) . It is important for you to practice good mouth care during treatment with Actonel with Calcium.

4. Bone, joint, or muscle pain.

Some people who take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) develop severe bone, joint, or muscle pain.

5. Unusual thigh bone fractures.

Some people have developed unusual fractures in their thigh bone. Symptoms of a fracture may include new or unusual pain in your hip, groin, or thigh.

Call your doctor right away if you have any of these side effects.

What is Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) ?

Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) is a prescription medicine used to:

  • Treat or prevent osteoporosis in women after menopause. Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) helps increase bone mass and helps reduce the chance of having a spinal or non-spinal fracture (break).

It is not known how long Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) works for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. You should see your doctor regularly to determine if Actonel with Calcium is still right for you.

Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) is not for use in children.

Who should not take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) ?

Do not take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) if you:

  • Have certain problems with your esophagus, the tube that connects your mouth with your stomach
  • Have low levels of calcium in your blood
  • Are allergic to Actonel or any of its ingredients. A list of ingredients is at the end of this leaflet.
  • Cannot stand or sit upright for at least 30 minutes

Do not take Calcium if you:

  • have high levels of calcium in your blood
  • are allergic to Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) or any of its ingredients. A list of ingredients is at the end of this leaflet

What should I tell my doctor before taking Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) ?

Before you start Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) , be sure to talk to your doctor if you:

  • Have problems with swallowing
  • Have stomach or digestive problems
  • Have low blood calcium
  • Plan to have dental surgery or teeth removed
  • Have kidney problems
  • Have been told you have trouble absorbing minerals in your stomach or intestines (malabsorption syndrome)
  • Are pregnant, or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if Actonel can harm your unborn baby.
  • Are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if Actonel passes into your milk and may harm your baby. You and your doctor should decide if you will take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) or breastfeed. You should not do both.

Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, including prescription and nonprescription medicines, vitamins and herbal supplements. Certain medicines may affect how Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) works.

Especially tell your doctor if you take:

  • antacids
  • askpirin
  • Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory (NSAID) medicines
  • thyroid medicines
  • antibiotics
  • iron
  • glucocorticoid medicines (steroid hormones)
  • a diuretic (water pill)

Ask your doctor or pharmacist for a list of these medicines, if you are not sure.

Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them and show it to your doctor and pharmacist each time you get a new medicine.

How should I take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) ?

  • Take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) exactly as your doctor tells you.
  • Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) works only if taken on an empty stomach.
  • Take 1 Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) tablet 1 time each week, after you get up for the day and before taking your first food, drink, or other medicine.
  • Take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) while you are sitting or standing.
  • Do not chew or suck on a tablet of Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) .
  • Swallow Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) tablet with a full glass (6 to 8 oz) of plain water only.
  • Do not take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) with mineral water, coffee, tea, soda, or juice.

After swallowing Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) tablet, wait at least 30 minutes:

  • Before you lie down. You may sit, stand or walk, and do normal activities like reading.
  • Before you take your first food or drink except for plain water.
  • Before you take other medicines, including antacids, calcium, and other supplements and vitamins.

Do not lie down for at least 30 minutes after you take Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) and after you eat your first food of the day.

Calcium:

  • Take 1 Calcium tablet daily with food for the following 6 days of the week.

If you miss a dose of Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) , do not take it later in the day. Take your missed dose the next morning and then return to your normal schedule. Do not take 2 doses at the same time.

If you miss more than 2 doses of Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) in a month, call your doctor for instructions.

If you take too much Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) , call your doctor. Do not try to vomit. Do not lie down.

What are the possible side effects of Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) ?

Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) may cause serious side effects:

  • See “What is the most important information I should know about Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) ?

The most common side effects of Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) are:

  • pain, including back and joint pain
  • stomach area (abdominal) pain
  • heartburn

You may get allergic reactions, such as hives or, in rare cases, swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Tell your doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.

These are not all the possible side effects of Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) . For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

How should I store Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) ?

  • Store Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) at room temperature, 68° F to 77° F (20° C to 25° C).

Keep Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) and all medicines out of the reach of children.

General information about the safe and effective use of Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate)

Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) to other people, even if they have the same symptoms you have. It may harm them.

This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about Actonel with Calcium. If you would like more information, talk with your doctor. You can ask your doctor or pharmacist for information about Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) that is written for health professionals.

For more information, go to www.wcrx.com or call 1-800-521-8813.

What are the ingredients in Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) ?

Actonel:

Active ingredient: risedronate sodium

Inactive ingredients: crospovidone, ferric oxide red, ferric oxide yellow, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide.

Calcium:

Active Ingredient: calcium carbonate

Inactive ingredients: pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, FD&C Blue #2, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol 3350, hypromellose, Opaspray Light Blue, polysorbate 80.

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/18/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Consumer Overview Uses

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

 

RISEDRONATE/CALCIUM - ORAL

 

(RIS-e-DROE-nate/KAL-see-um)

 

USES: This product contains two separate medications: risedronate tablets and calcium tablets.

Risedronate is used to prevent and treat certain types of bone loss (osteoporosis) in adults. Osteoporosis causes bones to become thinner and break (fracture) more easily. Your chance of developing osteoporosis increases as you age, after menopause, or if you are taking corticosteroid medications (such as prednisone) for a long time. This medication works by slowing bone loss to help maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of fractures. Risedronate belongs to a class of medications called bisphosphonates.

Calcium is a mineral needed to form healthy bones and to keep them strong. Calcium supplements are used to make sure you get enough calcium in addition to the calcium you get from a well-balanced diet.

 

HOW TO USE: Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start taking this product and each time you get a refill. Follow the instructions very closely to make sure you absorb as much of the drug as possible and reduce the risk of injury to your esophagus. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

This product package contains both risedronate and calcium tablets. Calcium can decrease the absorption of risedronate if taken within 30 minutes after it. Take risedronate and calcium on separate days to avoid this drug interaction.

For risedronate: Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually once a week. Take it after getting up for the day, before taking your first food, beverage, or other medication. Do not take it at bedtime or while you are still in bed. Take this medication with a full glass of plain water (6 to 8 ounces or 180 to 240 milliliters). Do not take it with any other beverages. Swallow the tablet whole. Do not chew or suck on it. Then stay fully upright (sitting, standing, or walking) for at least 30 minutes, and do not lie down until after your first food of the day. Wait at least 30 minutes after taking risedronate before you eat or drink anything other than plain water and before taking any other medication by mouth.

Iron supplements, vitamins with minerals, antacids containing calcium/magnesium/aluminum, dairy products (such as milk, yogurt), and calcium-enriched juice may interfere with absorption of risedronate. Medications such as quinapril, certain forms of didanosine (chewable/dispersible buffered tablets or pediatric oral solution), sucralfate, and bismuth subsalicylate may also interfere with absorption. Do not take these products for at least 30 minutes after taking risedronate.

For calcium: Take the calcium in this product as directed by your doctor, with food for best absorption, usually once daily except for the day you take risedronate. Calcium can interfere with the absorption of other drugs (such as levothyroxine, quinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, tetracycline antibiotics, iron, estramustine). Ask your pharmacist how and when to take these medications.

Use this product regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of long-term use of this medication.

Consumer Overview Side Effect

SIDE EFFECTS: Upset stomach, nausea, constipation, gas, or bloating may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: increased or severe bone/joint/muscle pain, new or unusual hip/thigh/groin pain, jaw pain, eye/vision problems.

Risedronate may infrequently cause irritation and ulcers in your stomach or esophagus. Get medical help right away if any of these serious side effects occur: new/severe/worsening heartburn, chest pain, difficult or painful swallowing, severe stomach/abdominal pain, black/tarry stools, vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

 

Read the Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

PRECAUTIONS: Before taking risedronate with calcium, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to either of these drugs; or to other bisphosphonates (such as alendronate, etidronate, pamidronate); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: low or high blood calcium levels (hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia), inability to sit upright or stand for at least 30 minutes, esophagus problems (such as narrowing of the esophagus, achalasia), difficult or painful swallowing, kidney problems (such as severe kidney disease, kidney stones), stomach/intestinal disorders (such as ulcers).

Infrequently, people taking this class of medication (bisphosphonates) have had serious jawbone problems (osteonecrosis). Lack of proper dental hygiene, poorly fitting dentures, or certain dental procedures (such as tooth extraction, dental surgery) may increase your risk. Medical conditions (such as gum disease/infection, cancer, anemia) might also increase the risk. If you develop jaw pain, tell your doctor and dentist immediately.

Before having any surgery (especially dental procedures), tell your doctor and dentist about this medication and all other products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products). Your doctor or dentist may tell you to stop taking this medication before your surgery. Ask for specific instructions about stopping or starting this medication.

Caution is advised if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant in the future. Risedronate may stay in your body for many years. Its effects on an unborn baby are not known. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor before starting treatment with risedronate.

It is unknown if risedronate passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Consumer Overview Missed Dose

DRUG INTERACTIONS: See also How to Use section.

Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

This medication may interfere with certain lab tests (bone-imaging agents). Be sure to tell your doctor or laboratory personnel that you are taking this medication.

 

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

 

NOTES: Do not share this product with others.

Lifestyle changes that help promote healthy bones include increasing weight-bearing exercise, stopping smoking, limiting alcohol, and eating well-balanced meals that contain adequate calcium and vitamin D. Since you may also need to take calcium and vitamin D supplements and make lifestyle changes, consult your doctor for specific advice.

Laboratory and/or medical tests (x-rays, height, blood mineral levels) should be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

 

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose of risedronate, do not take it later in the day. Take it the next morning after you remember. Take that day's calcium at a later time, with food. Continue taking your weekly dose of risedronate on your originally scheduled day of the week. Do not take two doses on the same day. Consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions.

If you miss a dose of calcium, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose of calcium to catch up unless your doctor directs you otherwise.

 

STORAGE: Store at room temperature away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

 

Information last revised March 2013. Copyright(c) 2013 First Databank, Inc.

Patient Detailed Side Effect

Brand Names: Actonel with Calcium

Generic Name: calcium carbonate and risedronate (Pronunciation: KAL see um KAR bo nate and rye SED roe nate)

  • What is calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?
  • What are the possible side effects of calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?
  • What is the most important information I should know about calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?
  • How should I take calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?
  • What happens if I miss a dose (Actonel with Calcium)?
  • What happens if I overdose (Actonel with Calcium)?
  • What should I avoid while taking calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?
  • What other drugs will affect calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?
  • Where can I get more information?

What is calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?

Risedronate is in the group of medicines called bisphosphonates (bis FOS fo nayts). It alters the cycle of bone formation and breakdown in the body. Risedronate slows bone loss while increasing bone mass, which may prevent bone fractures.

Calcium is a mineral that is needed for many functions of the body, especially bone formation and maintenance.

Risedronate is used to treat or prevent postmenopausal and steroid-induced osteoporosis. Risedronate is also used to treat Paget's disease of bone.

Calcium carbonate is used to prevent and to treat calcium deficiencies.

Calcium carbonate and risedronate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Actonel with Calcium

oval, blue/orange, imprinted with RSN 35 mg, NE2

What are the possible side effects of calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using this medication and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • chest pain;
  • difficulty or pain when swallowing;
  • pain or burning under the ribs or in the back;
  • new or worsening heartburn;
  • severe joint, bone, or muscle pain;
  • new or unusual pain in your thigh or hip; or
  • jaw pain, numbness, or swelling.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • mild heartburn, nausea, or stomach upset;
  • diarrhea, gas, or constipation;
  • muscle, joint, or back pain;
  • pain or burning with urination;
  • mild skin rash; or
  • headache or depressed mood.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Actonel with Calcium (risedronate sodium with calcium carbonate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

What is the most important information I should know about calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?

Actonel with Calcium is packaged as two separate medicines: 4 risedronate tablets and 24 calcium tablets. Take a risedronate tablet one day per week, first thing in the morning, at least 30 minutes before you eat or drink anything or take any other medicine. Take a calcium tablet with food every day for the 6 days in between your risedronate doses. Only the calcium tablet should be taken with food. Risedronate must be taken on an empty stomach.

Do not take a risedronate tablet if you cannot sit upright or stand for at least 30 minutes. Risedronate can cause serious problems in the stomach or esophagus (the tube that connects your mouth and stomach). You will need to stay upright for at least 30 minutes after taking this medication.

Take each dose with a full glass (6 to 8 ounces) of water. Use only plain water (not mineral water) when taking a risedronate tablet.

For at least the first 30 minutes after taking a risedronate tablet, do not lie down or recline, do not eat or drink anything other than plain water, and do not take any other medicines including vitamins, calcium, or antacids.

Some people using medicines similar to risedronate have developed bone loss in the jaw, also called osteonecrosis of the jaw. Symptoms of this condition may include jaw pain, swelling, numbness, loose teeth, gum infection, or slow healing after injury or surgery involving the gums. You may be more likely to develop osteonecrosis of the jaw if you have cancer or have been treated with chemotherapy, radiation, or steroids. Other conditions associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw include blood clotting disorders, anemia (low red blood cells), and a pre-existing dental problem.

Take only the amount of calcium that your doctor recommends. Do not use other calcium supplements unless your doctor has told you to.

Talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of using this medication.

Side Effects Centers
  • Actonel with Calcium

Patient Detailed How Take

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?

Do not take a risedronate tablet if you cannot sit upright or stand for at least 30 minutes. Risedronate can cause serious problems in the stomach or esophagus (the tube that connects your mouth and stomach). You will need to stay upright for at least 30 minutes after taking this medication.

To make sure you can safely take risedronate, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

  • low or high levels of calcium in your blood;
  • kidney disease;
  • trouble swallowing; or
  • an ulcer in your stomach or esophagus.

Some people using medicines similar to risedronate have developed bone loss in the jaw, also called osteonecrosis of the jaw. Symptoms of this condition may include jaw pain, swelling, numbness, loose teeth, gum infection, or slow healing after injury or surgery involving the gums.

You may be more likely to develop osteonecrosis of the jaw if you have cancer or have been treated with chemotherapy, radiation, or steroids. Other conditions associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw include blood clotting disorders, anemia (low red blood cells), and dental surgery or pre-existing dental problems.

Talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of using this medication.

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether calcium carbonate and risedronate will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using this medication.

It is not known whether calcium carbonate and risedronate passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I take calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?

Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Actonel with Calcium is packaged as two separate medicines: 4 risedronate tablets and 24 calcium tablets. Take a risedronate tablet one day per week, first thing in the morning, at least 30 minutes before you eat or drink anything or take any other medicine. Take a calcium tablet with food every day for the 6 days in between your risedronate doses.

Only the calcium tablet should be taken with food. Risedronate must be taken on an empty stomach.

Take the risedronate tablet first thing in the morning, at least 30 minutes before you eat or drink anything or take any other medicine. Take the risedronate tablet on the same day each week and always first thing in the morning.

Take the risedronate tablet with a full glass (6 to 8 ounces) of water. Use only plain water (not mineral water) when taking a risedronate tablet.

Do not crush, chew, or suck the risedronate tablet. Swallow the pill whole.

After taking a risedronate tablet, carefully follow these instructions:

  • Do not lie down or recline for at least 30 minutes.
  • Do not eat or drink anything other than plain water.
  • Do not take any other medicines including vitamins, calcium, or antacids for at least 30 minutes. It may be best to take your other medicines at a different time of the day. Talk with your doctor about the best dosing schedule for your other medicines.

Your bone mineral density will need to be checked often. You may not need to take this medication for longer than 3 to 5 years if you take it for osteoporosis. Visit your doctor regularly.

Calcium carbonate and risedronate is only part of a complete program of treatment that may also include diet changes, exercise, and taking vitamin supplements. Follow your diet, medication, and exercise routines very closely.

Take only the amount of calcium that your doctor recommends. Do not use other calcium supplements unless your doctor has told you to.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Side Effects Centers
  • Actonel with Calcium

Patient Detailed Avoid Taking

What happens if I miss a dose (Actonel with Calcium)?

If you forget to take a risedronate tablet: If you forget to take this medicine first thing in the morning, do not take it later in the day. Wait until the following morning to take the medicine and skip the missed dose. Do not take two (2) tablets in one day.

If you forget to take a calcium carbonate tablet: Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose (Actonel with Calcium)?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222. Drink a full glass of milk and call your local poison control center or emergency room right away. Do not make yourself vomit and do not lie down.

Overdose symptoms may include nausea, heartburn, stomach pain, diarrhea, muscle cramps, numbness or tingling, tight muscles in your face, seizure (convulsions), irritability, and unusual thoughts or behavior.

What should I avoid while taking calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?

Do not take any other medicines including vitamins, calcium, or antacids for at least 30 minutes after taking a risedronate tablet.

Do not take an iron supplement at the same time you take a calcium tablet. Take these minerals at separate times of the day.

What other drugs will affect calcium carbonate and risedronate (Actonel with Calcium)?

Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use, especially:

  • levothyroxine (Synthroid);
  • diuretics (water pills);
  • steroids (prednisone and others);
  • an antibiotic such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), doxycycline (Doryx, Oracea, Periostat, Vibramycin), levofloxacin (Levaquin), minocycline (Minocin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), ofloxacin (Floxin), tetracycline (Ala-Tet, Brodspec, Panmycin, Sumycin, Tetracap), and others; or
  • aspirin or other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), diflunisal (Dolobid), ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), indomethacin, ketoprofen (Orudis), ketorolac (Toradol), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), piroxicam (Feldene), and others.

This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with calcium carbonate and risedronate. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2013 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 7.02. Revision date: 6/4/2012.

Your use of the content provided in this service indicates that you have read,understood and agree to the End-User License Agreement,which can be accessed by clicking on this link.

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