Drugs Details

Drugs Info of Inspra
Drugs Details
  • Drugs Type  : FDA
  • Date : 17th Feb 2015 02:58 am
  • Brand Name : Inspra
  • Generic Name : eplerenone (Pronunciation: ep LER e none)
Descriptions

INSPRA contains eplerenone, a blocker of aldosterone binding at the mineralocorticoid receptor.

Eplerenone is chemically described as Pregn-4-ene-7,21-dicarboxylic acid, 9,11-epoxy-17-hydroxy3-oxo-, γ-lactone, methyl ester, (7α,11α,17α)-. Its empirical formula is C2430O6 and it has a molecular weight of 414.50. The structural formula of eplerenone is represented below:

 

INSPRA (eplerenone) Structural Formula Illustration

Eplerenone is an odorless, white to off-white crystalline powder. It is very slightly soluble in water, with its solubility essentially pH-independent. The octanol/water partition coefficient of eplerenone is approximately 7.1 at pH 7.0.

INSPRA for oral administration contains 25 mg or 50 mg of eplerenone and the following inactive ingredients: lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, sodium lauryl sulfate, talc, magnesium stearate, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, and iron oxide yellow and iron oxide red.

What are the possible side effects of this drug (Inspra)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; severe stomach pain; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • high potassium (slow heart rate, weak pulse, muscle weakness, tingly feeling); or
  • low potassium (confusion, uneven heart rate, extreme thirst, increased urination, leg discomfort, muscle weakness or limp feeling).

Less serious side effects may include:

  • diarrhea, stomach...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Inspra »

What are the precautions when taking eplerenone (Inspra)?

Before taking eplerenone, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: high potassium blood levels (hyperkalemia), severe kidney disease, diabetes.

This medication may increase your potassium levels. Before using potassium supplements or salt substitutes that contain potassium, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

This drug may make you dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Limit...

Read All Potential Precautions of Inspra »


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Indications

Patient Selection Considerations

Serum potassium levels should be measured before initiating INSPRA therapy, and INSPRA should not be prescribed if serum potassium is > 5.5 mEq/L [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].

Congestive Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

INSPRA is indicated to improve survival of stable patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤ 40%) and clinical evidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) after an acute myocardial infarction (MI).

Hypertension

INSPRA is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes.

Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program's Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).

Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.

Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.

Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy. INSPRA may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.

Dosage Administration

Congestive Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

Treatment should be initiated at 25 mg once daily and titrated to the recommended dose of 50 mg once daily, preferably within 4 weeks as tolerated by the patient. INSPRA may be administered with or without food.

Once treatment with INSPRA has begun, adjust the dose based on the serum potassium level as shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Dose Adjustment in Congestive Heart Failure Post-MI

Serum Potassium (mEq/L) Action Dose Adjustment
< 5.0 Increase 25 mg every other day to 25 mg once daily
25 mg once daily to 50 mg once daily
5.0–5.4 Maintain No adjustment
5.5–5.9 Decrease 50 mg once daily to 25 mg once daily
25 mg once daily to 25 mg every other day
25 mg every other day to withhold
≥ 6.0 Withhold Restart at 25 mg every other day when potassium levels fall to < 5.5 mEq/L

Hypertension

The recommended starting dose of INSPRA is 50 mg administered once daily. The full therapeutic effect of INSPRA is apparent within 4 weeks. For patients with an inadequate blood pressure response to 50 mg once daily the dosage of INSPRA should be increased to 50 mg twice daily. Higher dosages of INSPRA are not recommended because they have no greater effect on blood pressure than 100 mg and are associated with an increased risk of hyperkalemia [see Clinical Studies].

Recommended Monitoring

Serum potassium should be measured before initiating INSPRA therapy, within the first week, and at one month after the start of treatment or dose adjustment. Serum potassium should be assessed periodically thereafter. Patient characteristics and serum potassium levels may indicate that additional monitoring is appropriate [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS]. In the EPHESUS study [see Clinical Studies], the majority of hyperkalemia was observed within the first three months after randomization.

In all patients taking INSPRA who start taking a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, check serum potassium and serum creatinine in 3-7 days.

Dose Modifications for Specific Populations

For hypertensive patients receiving moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., erythromycin, saquinavir, verapamil, and fluconazole), the starting dose of INSPRA should be reduced to 25 mg once daily [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

No adjustment of the starting dose is recommended for the elderly or for patients with mild-tomoderate hepatic impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

How Supplied

Dosage Forms And Strengths

  • 25 mg tablets: yellow diamond biconvex film-coated tablets debossed with Pfizer on one side and NSR over 25 on the other
  • 50 mg tablets: yellow diamond biconvex film-coated tablets debossed with Pfizer on one side and NSR over 50 on the other

Storage And Handling

INSPRA Tablets, 25 mg, are yellow diamond biconvex film-coated tablets. They are debossed with Pfizer on one side and NSR over 25 on the other. They are supplied as follows:

 

NDC Number Size
0025-1710-01 Bottle of 30 tablets
0025-1710-02 Bottle of 90 tablets
0025-1710-03 Hospital Unit Dose

INSPRA Tablets, 50 mg, are yellow diamond biconvex film-coated tablets. They are debossed with Pfizer on one side and NSR over 50 on the other. They are supplied as follows:

 

NDC Number Size
0025-1720-03 Bottle of 30 tablets
0025-1720-01 Bottle of 90 tablets

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15–30°C (59–86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Distributed by : G.D.Searle, Division of Pfizer Inc, NY, NY 10017. Revised: May 2013


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Side Effects

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

  • Hyperkalemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Clinical Trials Experience

Congestive Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

In EPHESUS, safety was evaluated in 3307 patients treated with INSPRA and 3301 placebo-treated patients. The overall incidence of adverse events reported with INSPRA (78.9%) was similar to placebo (79.5%). Adverse events occurred at a similar rate regardless of age, gender, or race. Patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse event at similar rates in either treatment group (4.4% INSPRA vs. 4.3% placebo), with the most common reasons for discontinuation being hyperkalemia, myocardial infarction, and abnormal renal function.

Adverse reactions that occurred more frequently in patients treated with INSPRA than placebo were hyperkalemia (3.4% vs. 2.0%) and increased creatinine (2.4% vs. 1.5%). Discontinuations due to hyperkalemia or abnormal renal function were less than 1.0% in both groups. Hypokalemia occurred less frequently in patients treated with INSPRA (0.6% vs. 1.6%). The rates of sex hormone-related adverse events are shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Rates of Sex Hormone-Related Adverse Events in EPHESUS

  Rates in Males Rates in Females
Gynecomastia Mastodynia Either Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding
INSPRA 0.40% 0.10% 0.50% 0.40%
Placebo 0.50% 0.10% 0.60% 0.40%
Hypertension

INSPRA has been evaluated for safety in 3091 patients treated for hypertension. A total of 690 patients were treated for over 6 months and 106 patients were treated for over 1 year.

In placebo-controlled studies, the overall rates of adverse events were 47% with INSPRA and 45% with placebo. Adverse events occurred at a similar rate regardless of age, gender, or race. Therapy was discontinued due to an adverse event in 3% of patients treated with INSPRA and 3% of patients given placebo. The most common reasons for discontinuation of INSPRA were headache, dizziness, angina pectoris/myocardial infarction, and increased GGT. The adverse events that were reported at a rate of at least 1% of patients and at a higher rate in patients treated with INSPRA in daily doses of 25 to 400 mg versus placebo are shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Rates (%) of Adverse Events Occurring in Placebo-Controlled Hypertension Studies in ≥ 1% of Patients Treated with INSPRA (25 to 400 mg) and at a More Frequent Rate than in Placebo-Treated Patients

  INSPRA
(n=945)
Placebo
(n=372)
Metabolic
  Hypercholesterolemia 1 0
  Hypertriglyceridemia 1 0
Digestive
  Diarrhea 2 1
  Abdominal pain 1 0
Urinary
  Albuminuria 1 0
Respiratory
  Coughing 2 1
Central/Peripheral Nervous Syste
   Dizziness 3 2
Body as a Whole
  Fatigue 2 1
  Influenza-like symptoms 2 1
Note: Adverse events that are too general to be informative or are very common in the treated population are excluded.

Gynecomastia and abnormal vaginal bleeding were reported with INSPRA but not with placebo. The rates of these sex hormone-related adverse events are shown in Table 4. The rates increased slightly with increasing duration of therapy. In females, abnormal vaginal bleeding was also reported in 0.8% of patients on antihypertensive medications (other than spironolactone) in active control arms of the studies with INSPRA.

Table 4: Rates of Sex Hormone-Related Adverse Events with INSPRA in Hypertension Clinical Studies

  Rates in Males Rates in Females
Gynecomastia Mastodynia Either Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding
All controlled studies 0.50% 0.80% 1.00% 0.60%
Controlled studies lasting ≥ 6 months 0.70% 1.30% 1.60% 0.80%
Open-label, long-term study 1.00% 0.30% 1.00% 2.10%

Clinical Laboratory Test Findings

Congestive Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

Creatinine: Increases of more than 0.5 mg/dL were reported for 6.5% of patients administered INSPRA and for 4.9% of placebo-treated patients.

Potassium: In EPHESUS [see Clinical Studies], the frequencies of patients with changes in potassium ( < 3.5 mEq/L or > 5.5 mEq/L or ≥ 6.0 mEq/L) receiving INSPRA compared with placebo are displayed in Table 5.

Table 5: Hypokalemia ( < 3.5 mEq/L) or Hyperkalemia ( > 5.5 or ≥ 6.0 mEq/L) in EPHESUSCongestive Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

Potassium (mEq/L) INSPRA
(N=3251)
n (%)
Placebo
(N=3237)
n (%)
< 3.5 273 (8.4) 424 (13.1)
> 5.5 508 (15.6) 363 (11.2)
≥ 6.0 180 (5.5) 126 (3.9)

Table 6 shows the rates of hyperkalemia in EPHESUS as assessed by baseline renal function (creatinine clearance).

Table 6: Rates of Hyperkalemia ( > 5.5 mEq/L) in EPHESUS by Baseline Creatinine Clearance*

Baseline Creatinine Clearance INSPRA
(N=508)
n (%)
Placebo
(N=363)
n (%)
≤ 30 mL/min 160 (32) 82 (23)
31–50 mL/min 122 (24) 46 (13)
51–70 mL/min 86 (17) 48 (13)
> 70 mL/min 56 (11) 32 (9)
* Estimated using the Cockroft-Gault formula.

Table 7 shows the rates of hyperkalemia in EPHESUS as assessed by two baseline characteristics: presence/absence of proteinuria from baseline urinalysis and presence/absence of diabetes [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Table 7: Rates of Hyperkalemia ( > 5.5 mEq/L) in EPHESUS by Proteinuria and History of Diabetes*

  INSPRA
(N=508)
n (%)
Placebo
(N=363)
n (%)
Proteinuria, no Diabetes 81 (16) 40 (11)
Diabetes, no Proteinuria 91 (18) 47 (13)
Proteinuria and Diabetes 132 (26) 58 (16)
* Diabetes assessed as positive medical history at baseline; proteinuria assessed by positive dipstick urinalysis at baseline.
Hypertension

Potassium: In placebo-controlled fixed-dose studies, the mean increases in serum potassium were dose-related and are shown in Table 8 along with the frequencies of values > 5.5 mEq/L.

Table 8: Increases in Serum Potassium in the Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Hypertension Studies of INSPRA

Daily Dosage n Mean Increase mEq/L % > 5.5 mEq/L
Placebo 194 0 1
25 97 0.08 0
50 245 0.14 0
100 193 0.09 1
200 139 0.19 1
400 104 0.36 8.7

Patients with both type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria are at increased risk of developing persistent hyperkalemia. In a study of such patients taking INSPRA 200 mg, the frequencies of maximum serum potassium levels > 5.5 mEq/L were 33% with INSPRA given alone and 38% when INSPRA was given with enalapril.

Rates of hyperkalemia increased with decreasing renal function. In all studies, serum potassium elevations > 5.5 mEq/L were observed in 10.4% of patients treated with INSPRA with baseline calculated creatinine clearance < 70 mL/min, 5.6% of patients with baseline creatinine clearance of 70 to 100 mL/min, and 2.6% of patients with baseline creatinine clearance of > 100 mL/min [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Sodium: Serum sodium decreased in a dose-related manner. Mean decreases ranged from 0.7 mEq/L at 50 mg daily to 1.7 mEq/L at 400 mg daily. Decreases in sodium ( < 135 mEq/L) were reported for 2.3% of patients administered INSPRA and 0.6% of placebo-treated patients.

Triglycerides: Serum triglycerides increased in a dose-related manner. Mean increases ranged from 7.1 mg/dL at 50 mg daily to 26.6 mg/dL at 400 mg daily. Increases in triglycerides (above 252 mg/dL) were reported for 15% of patients administered INSPRA and 12% of placebo-treated patients.

Cholesterol: Serum cholesterol increased in a dose-related manner. Mean changes ranged from a decrease of 0.4 mg/dL at 50 mg daily to an increase of 11.6 mg/dL at 400 mg daily. Increases in serum cholesterol values greater than 200 mg/dL were reported for 0.3% of patients administered INSPRA and 0% of placebo-treated patients.

Liver Function Tests: Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) increased in a dose-related manner. Mean increases ranged from 0.8 U/L at 50 mg daily to 4.8 U/L at 400 mg daily for ALT and 3.1 U/L at 50 mg daily to 11.3 U/L at 400 mg daily for GGT. Increases in ALT levels greater than 120 U/L (3 times upper limit of normal) were reported for 15/2259 patients administered INSPRA and 1/351 placebo-treated patients. Increases in ALT levels greater than 200 U/L (5 times upper limit of normal) were reported for 5/2259 of patients administered INSPRA and 1/351 placebo-treated patients. Increases of ALT greater than 120 U/L and bilirubin greater than 1.2 mg/dL were reported 1/2259 patients administered INSPRA and 0/351 placebo-treated patients. Hepatic failure was not reported in patients receiving INSPRA.

BUN/Creatinine: Serum creatinine increased in a dose-related manner. Mean increases ranged from 0.01 mg/dL at 50 mg daily to 0.03 mg/dL at 400 mg daily. Increases in blood urea nitrogen to greater than 30 mg/dL and serum creatinine to greater than 2 mg/dL were reported for 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively, of patients administered INSPRA and 0% of placebo-treated patients.

Uric Acid: Increases in uric acid to greater than 9 mg/dL were reported in 0.3% of patients administered INSPRA and 0% of placebo-treated patients.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of INSPRA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Skin: angioneurotic edema, rash

Read the Inspra (eplerenone) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Interactions

CYP3A4 Inhibitors

Because eplerenone metabolism is predominantly mediated via CYP3A4, do not use INSPRA with drugs that are strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

In patients with hypertension taking moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors, reduce the starting dose of INSPRA to 25 mg once daily [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

ACE Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists

The risk of hyperkalaemia may increase when eplerenone is used in combination with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). A close monitoring of serum potassium and renal function is recommended, especially in patients at risk for impaired renal function, e.g., the elderly [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Congestive Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

In EPHESUS [see Clinical Studies], 3020 (91%) patients receiving INSPRA 25 to 50 mg also received ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ACEI/ARB). Rates of patients with maximum potassium levels > 5.5 mEq/L were similar regardless of the use of ACEI/ARB.

Hypertension

In clinical studies of patients with hypertension, the addition of INSPRA 50 to 100 mg to ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists increased mean serum potassium slightly (about 0.09– 0.13 mEq/L). In a study in diabetics with microalbuminuria, INSPRA 200 mg combined with the ACE inhibitor enalapril 10 mg increased the frequency of hyperkalemia (serum potassium > 5.5 mEq/L) from 17% on enalapril alone to 38%.

Lithium

A drug interaction study of eplerenone with lithium has not been conducted. Lithium toxicity has been reported in patients receiving lithium concomitantly with diuretics and ACE inhibitors. Serum lithium levels should be monitored frequently if INSPRA is administered concomitantly with lithium.

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

A drug interaction study of eplerenone with an NSAID has not been conducted. The administration of other potassium-sparing antihypertensives with NSAIDs has been shown to reduce the antihypertensive effect in some patients and result in severe hyperkalemia in patients with impaired renal function. Therefore, when INSPRA and NSAIDs are used concomitantly, patients should be observed to determine whether the desired effect on blood pressure is obtained and monitored for changes in serum potassium levels.

Read the Inspra Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

Learn More »


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Warnings

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

Precautions

Hyperkalemia

Minimize the risk of hyperkalemia with proper patient selection and monitoring, and avoidance of certain concomitant medications [See CONTRAINDICATIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Monitor patients for the development of hyperkalemia until the effect of INSPRA is established. Patients who develop hyperkalemia ( > 5.5 mEq/L) may continue INSPRA therapy with proper dose adjustment. Dose reduction decreases potassium levels [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

The rates of hyperkalemia increase with declining renal function [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Patients with hypertension who have serum creatinine levels > 2.0 mg/dL (males) or > 1.8 mg/dL (females) or creatinine clearance ≤ 50 mL/min should not be treated with INSPRA [see CONTRAINDICTIONS]. Patients with CHF post-MI who have serum creatinine levels > 2.0 mg/dL (males) or > 1.8 mg/dL (females) or creatinine clearance ≤ 50mL/min should be treated with INSPRA with caution.

Diabetic patients with CHF post-MI should also be treated with caution, especially those with proteinuria. The subset of patients in the EPHESUS study with both diabetes and proteinuria on the baseline urinalysis had increased rates of hyperkalemia compared to patients with either diabetes or proteinuria [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].

The risk of hyperkalaemia may increase when eplerenone is used in combination with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Impaired Hepatic Function

Mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment did not increase the incidence of hyperkalemia. In 16 subjects with mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment who received 400 mg of eplerenone, no elevations of serum potassium above 5.5 mEq/L were observed. The mean increase in serum potassium was 0.12 mEq/L in patients with hepatic impairment and 0.13 mEq/L in normal controls. The use of INSPRA in patients with severe hepatic impairment has not been evaluated [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Impaired Renal Function

Patients with decreased renal function are at increased risk of hyperkalemia [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS].

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Eplerenone was non-genotoxic in a battery of assays including in vitro bacterial mutagenesis (Ames test in Salmonella spp. and E. Coli), in vitro mammalian cell mutagenesis (mouse lymphoma cells), in vitro chromosomal aberration (Chinese hamster ovary cells), in vivo rat bone marrow micronucleus formation, and in vivo/ex vivo unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat liver.

There was no drug-related tumor response in heterozygous P53 deficient mice when tested for 6 months at dosages up to 1000 mg/kg/day (systemic AUC exposures up to 9 times the exposure in humans receiving the 100 mg/day therapeutic dose). Statistically significant increases in benign thyroid tumors were observed after 2 years in both male and female rats when administered eplerenone 250 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested) and in male rats only at 75 mg/kg/day. These dosages provided systemic AUC exposures approximately 2 to 12 times higher than the average human therapeutic exposure at 100 mg/day. Repeat dose administration of eplerenone to rats increases the hepatic conjugation and clearance of thyroxin, which results in increased levels of TSH by a compensatory mechanism. Drugs that have produced thyroid tumors by this rodent-specific mechanism have not shown a similar effect in humans.

Male rats treated with eplerenone at 1000 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks (AUC 17 times that at the 100 mg/day human therapeutic dose) had decreased weights of seminal vesicles and epididymides and slightly decreased fertility. Dogs administered eplerenone at dosages of 15 mg/kg/day and higher (AUC 5 times that at the 100 mg/day human therapeutic dose) had dose-related prostate atrophy. The prostate atrophy was reversible after daily treatment for 1 year at 100 mg/kg/day. Dogs with prostate atrophy showed no decline in libido, sexual performance, or semen quality. Testicular weight and histology were not affected by eplerenone in any test animal species at any dosage.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category B

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. INSPRA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Teratogenic Effects

Embryo-fetal development studies were conducted with doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day in rats and 300 mg/kg/day in rabbits (exposures up to 32 and 31 times the human AUC for the 100 mg/day therapeutic dose, respectively). No teratogenic effects were seen in rats or rabbits, although decreased body weight in maternal rabbits and increased rabbit fetal resorptions and post-implantation loss were observed at the highest administered dosage. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, INSPRA should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

The concentration of eplerenone in human breast milk after oral administration is unknown. However, preclinical data show that eplerenone and/or metabolites are present in rat breast milk (0.85:1 [milk:plasma] AUC ratio) obtained after a single oral dose. Peak concentrations in plasma and milk were obtained from 0.5 to 1 hour after dosing. Rat pups exposed by this route developed normally. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the unknown potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

In a 10-week study of 304 hypertensive pediatric patients age 4 to 17 years treated with INSPRA up to 100 mg per day, doses that produced exposure similar to that in adults, INSPRA did not lower blood pressure effectively. In this study and in a 1-year pediatric safety study in 149 patients, the incidence of reported adverse events was similar to that of adults.

INSPRA has not been studied in hypertensive patients less than 4 years old because the study in older pediatric patients did not demonstrate effectiveness.

INSPRA has not been studied in pediatric patients with heart failure.

Geriatric Use

Congestive Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

Of the total number of patients in EPHESUS, 3340 (50%) were 65 and over, while 1326 (20%) were 75 and over. Patients greater than 75 years did not appear to benefit from the use of INSPRA. [See Clinical Studies.]

No differences in overall incidence of adverse events were observed between elderly and younger patients. However, due to age-related decreases in creatinine clearance, the incidence of laboratory-documented hyperkalemia was increased in patients 65 and older [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Hypertension

Of the total number of subjects in clinical hypertension studies of INSPRA, 1123 (23%) were 65 and over, while 212 (4%) were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between elderly subjects and younger subjects.


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OverDose

No cases of human overdosage with eplerenone have been reported. Lethality was not observed in mice, rats, or dogs after single oral doses that provided Cmax exposures at least 25 times higher than in humans receiving eplerenone 100 mg/day. Dogs showed emesis, salivation, and tremors at a Cmax 41 times the human therapeutic Cmax, progressing to sedation and convulsions at higher exposures.

The most likely manifestation of human overdosage would be anticipated to be hypotension or hyperkalemia. Eplerenone cannot be removed by hemodialysis. Eplerenone has been shown to bind extensively to charcoal. If symptomatic hypotension should occur, supportive treatment should be instituted. If hyperkalemia develops, standard treatment should be initiated.

ContrainDications

For All Patients

INSPRA is contraindicated in all patients with:

  • serum potassium > 5.5 mEq/L at initiation,
  • creatinine clearance ≤ 30 mL/min, or
  • concomitant administration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, nefazodone, troleandomycin, clarithromycin, ritonavir, and nelfinavir) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
For Patients Treated for Hypertension

INSPRA is contraindicated for the treatment of hypertension in patients with:

  • type 2 diabetes with microalbuminuria,
  • serum creatinine > 2.0 mg/dL in males or > 1.8 mg/dL in females,
  • creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min, or
  • concomitant administration of potassium supplements or potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., amiloride, spironolactone, or triamterene) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Clinical Pharamacology

Mechanism of Action

Eplerenone binds to the mineralocorticoid receptor and blocks the binding of aldosterone, a component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS). Aldosterone synthesis, which occurs primarily in the adrenal gland, is modulated by multiple factors, including angiotensin II and non-RAAS mediators such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and potassium. Aldosterone binds to mineralocorticoid receptors in both epithelial (e.g., kidney) and nonepithelial (e.g., heart, blood vessels, and brain) tissues and increases blood pressure through induction of sodium reabsorption and possibly other mechanisms.

Eplerenone has been shown to produce sustained increases in plasma renin and serum aldosterone, consistent with inhibition of the negative regulatory feedback of aldosterone on renin secretion. The resulting increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone circulating levels do not overcome the effects of eplerenone.

Eplerenone selectively binds to recombinant human mineralocorticoid receptors relative to its binding to recombinant human glucocorticoid, progesterone, and androgen receptors.

Pharmacokinetics

Eplerenone is cleared predominantly by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 metabolism, with an elimination half-life of 4 to 6 hours. Steady state is reached within 2 days. Absorption is not affected by food. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., ketoconazole, saquinavir) increase blood levels of eplerenone.

Absorption and Distribution

Mean peak plasma concentrations of eplerenone are reached approximately 1.5 hours following oral administration. The absolute bioavailability of eplerenone is 69% following administration of a 100 mg oral tablet. Both peak plasma levels (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) are dose proportional for doses of 25 to 100 mg and less than proportional at doses above 100 mg.

The plasma protein binding of eplerenone is about 50% and it is primarily bound to alpha 1-acid glycoproteins. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state ranged from 43 to 90 L. Eplerenone does not preferentially bind to red blood cells.

Metabolism and Excretion

Eplerenone metabolism is primarily mediated via CYP3A4. No active metabolites of eplerenone have been identified in human plasma.

Less than 5% of an eplerenone dose is recovered as unchanged drug in the urine and feces. Following a single oral dose of radiolabeled drug, approximately 32% of the dose was excreted in the feces and approximately 67% was excreted in the urine. The elimination half-life of eplerenone is approximately 4 to 6 hours. The apparent plasma clearance is approximately 10 L/hr.

Age, Gender, and Race

The pharmacokinetics of eplerenone at a dose of 100 mg once daily has been investigated in the elderly ( ≥ 65 years), in males and females, and in Blacks. At steady state, elderly subjects had increases in Cmax (22%) and AUC (45%) compared with younger subjects (18 to 45 years). The pharmacokinetics of eplerenone did not differ significantly between males and females. At steady state, Cmax was 19% lower and AUC was 26% lower in Blacks [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Use in Specific Populations].

Renal Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of eplerenone was evaluated in patients with varying degrees of renal impairment and in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Compared with control subjects, steady state AUC and Cmax were increased by 38% and 24%, respectively, in patients with severe renal impairment and were decreased by 26% and 3%, respectively, in patients undergoing hemodialysis. No correlation was observed between plasma clearance of eplerenone and creatinine clearance. Eplerenone is not removed by hemodialysis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Hepatic Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of eplerenone 400 mg has been investigated in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment and compared with normal subjects. Steady state Cmax and AUC of eplerenone were increased by 3.6% and 42%, respectively.

Heart Failure

The pharmacokinetics of eplerenone 50 mg was evaluated in 8 patients with heart failure (NYHA classification II–IV) and 8 matched (gender, age, weight) healthy controls. Compared with the controls, steady state AUC and Cmax in patients with stable heart failure were 38% and 30% higher, respectively.

Drug-Drug Interactions

[see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Eplerenone is metabolized primarily by CYP3A4. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 cause increased exposure [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Drug-drug interaction studies were conducted with a 100 mg dose of eplerenone.

A pharmacokinetic study evaluating the administration of a single dose of INSPRA 100 mg with ketoconazole 200 mg two times a day, a strong inhibitor of the CYP3A4 pathway, showed a 1.7-fold increase in Cmax of eplerenone and a 5.4-fold increase in AUC of eplerenone.

Administration of eplerenone with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., erythromycin 500 mg BID, verapamil 240 mg once daily, saquinavir 1200 mg three times a day, fluconazole 200 mg once daily) resulted in increases in Cmax of eplerenone ranging from 1.4- to 1.6-fold and AUC from 2.0- to 2.9-fold.

Grapefruit juice caused only a small increase (about 25%) in exposure.

Eplerenone is not an inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, or CYP2D6. Eplerenone did not inhibit the metabolism of amiodarone, amlodipine, astemizole, chlorzoxazone, cisapride, dexamethasone, dextromethorphan, diclofenac, 17α-ethinyl estradiol, fluoxetine, losartan, lovastatin, mephobarbital, methylphenidate, methylprednisolone, metoprolol, midazolam, nifedipine, phenacetin, phenytoin, simvastatin, tolbutamide, triazolam, verapamil, and warfarin in vitro. Eplerenone is not a substrate or an inhibitor of P-Glycoprotein at clinically relevant doses.

No clinically significant drug-drug pharmacokinetic interactions were observed when eplerenone was administered with cisapride, cyclosporine, digoxin, glyburide, midazolam, oral contraceptives (norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol), simvastatin, or warfarin. St. John's Wort (a CYP3A4 inducer) caused a small (about 30%) decrease in eplerenone AUC.

No significant changes in eplerenone pharmacokinetics were observed when eplerenone was administered with aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids.

Clinical Studies

Congestive Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction

The eplerenone post-acute myocardial infarction heart failure efficacy and survival study (EPHESUS) was a multinational, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in patients clinically stable 3–14 days after an acute myocardial infarction (MI) with left ventricular dysfunction (as measured by left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] ≤ 40%) and either diabetes or clinical evidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) (pulmonary congestion by exam or chest X-ray or S3). Patients with CHF of valvular or congenital etiology, patients with unstable post-infarct angina, and patients with serum potassium > 5.0 mEq/L or serum creatinine > 2.5 mg/dL were to be excluded. Patients were allowed to receive standard post-MI drug therapy and to undergo revascularization by angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

Patients randomized to INSPRA were given an initial dose of 25 mg once daily and titrated to the target dose of 50 mg once daily after 4 weeks if serum potassium was < 5.0 mEq/L. Dosage was reduced or suspended anytime during the study if serum potassium levels were ≥ 5.5 mEq/L [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

EPHESUS randomized 6,632 patients (9.3% U.S.) at 671 centers in 27 countries. The study population was primarily white (90%, with 1% Black, 1% Asian, 6% Hispanic, 2% other) and male (71%). The mean age was 64 years (range, 22–94 years). The majority of patients had pulmonary congestion (75%) by exam or x-ray and were Killip Class II (64%). The mean ejection fraction was 33%. The average time to enrollment was 7 days post-MI. Medical histories prior to the index MI included hypertension (60%), coronary artery disease (62%), dyslipidemia (48%), angina (41%), type 2 diabetes (30%), previous MI (27%), and CHF (15%).

The mean dose of INSPRA was 43 mg/day. Patients also received standard care including aspirin (92%), ACE inhibitors (90%), ß-blockers (83%), nitrates (72%), loop diuretics (66%), or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (60%).

Patients were followed for an average of 16 months (range, 0–33 months). The ascertainment rate for vital status was 99.7%.

The co-primary endpoints for EPHESUS were (1) the time to death from any cause, and (2) the time to first occurrence of either cardiovascular (CV) mortality [defined as sudden cardiac death or death due to progression of congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke, or other CV causes] or CV hospitalization (defined as hospitalization for progression of CHF, ventricular arrhythmias, acute myocardial infarction, or stroke).

For the co-primary endpoint for death from any cause, there were 478 deaths in the INSPRA group (14.4%) and 554 deaths in the placebo group (16.7%). The risk of death with INSPRA was reduced by 15% [hazard ratio equal to 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.96; p = 0.008 by log rank test)]. Kaplan-Meier estimates of all-cause mortality are shown in Figure 1 and the components of mortality are provided in Table 9.

Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier Estimates of All-Cause Mortality

View Enlarged Table

Table 9: Components of All-Cause Mortality in EPHESUS

  INSPRA
(N=3319)
n (%)
Placebo
(N=3313)
n (%)
Hazard Ratio p-value
Death from any cause 478 (14.4) 554 (16.7) 0.85 0.008
  CV Death 407 (12.3) 483 (14.6) 0.83 0.005
  Non-CV Death 60 (1.8) 54 (1.6)    
  Unknown or unwitnessed death 11 (0.3) 17 (0.5)    

Most CV deaths were attributed to sudden death, acute MI, and CHF.

The time to first event for the co-primary endpoint of CV death or hospitalization, as defined above, was longer in the INSPRA group (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 0.95, p = 0.002). An analysis that included the time to first occurrence of CV mortality and all CV hospitalizations (atrial arrhythmia, angina, CV procedures, progression of CHF, MI, stroke, ventricular arrhythmia, or other CV causes) showed a smaller effect with a hazard ratio of 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.86 to 0.99; p = 0.028). The combined endpoints, including combined all-cause hospitalization and mortality were driven primarily by CV mortality. The combined endpoints in EPHESUS, including all-cause hospitalization and all-cause mortality, are presented in Table 10.

Table 10: Rates of Death or Hospitalization in EPHESUS

Event INSPRA
n (%)
Placebo
n (%)
CV death or hospitalization for progression of CHF, stroke, MI or ventricular arrhythmia1 885 (26.7) 993 (30.0)
  Death 407 (12.3) 483 (14.6)
  Hospitalization 606 (18.3) 649 (19.6)
CV death or hospitalization for progression of CHF, stroke, MI, ventricular arrhythmia, atrial arrhythmia, angina, CV procedures, or other CV causes (PVD; Hypotension) 1516 (45.7) 1610 (48.6)
  Death 407 (12.3) 483 (14.6)
  Hospitalization 1281 (38.6) 1307 (39.5)
All-cause death or hospitalization 1734 (52.2) 1833 (55.3)
  Death1 478 (14.4) 554 (16.7)
  Hospitalization 1497 (45.1) 1530 (46.2)
1Co-Primary Endpoint.

Mortality hazard ratios varied for some subgroups as shown in Figure 2. Mortality hazard ratios appeared favorable for INSPRA for both genders and for all races or ethnic groups, although the numbers of non-Caucasians were low (648, 10%). Patients with diabetes without clinical evidence of CHF and patients greater than 75 years did not appear to benefit from the use of INSPRA. Such subgroup analyses must be interpreted cautiously.

Figure 2: Hazard Ratios of All-Cause Mortality by Subgroups

View Enlarged Table

Analyses conducted for a variety of CV biomarkers did not confirm a mechanism of action by which mortality was reduced.

Hypertension

The safety and efficacy of INSPRA have been evaluated alone and in combination with other antihypertensive agents in clinical studies of 3091 hypertensive patients. The studies included 46% women, 14% Blacks, and 22% elderly (age ≥ 65). The studies excluded patients with elevated baseline serum potassium ( > 5.0 mEq/L) and elevated baseline serum creatinine (generally > 1.5 mg/dL in males and > 1.3 mg/dL in females).

Two fixed-dose, placebo-controlled, 8- to 12-week monotherapy studies in patients with baseline diastolic blood pressures of 95 to 114 mm Hg were conducted to assess the antihypertensive effect of INSPRA. In these two studies, 611 patients were randomized to INSPRA and 140 patients to placebo. Patients received INSPRA in doses of 25 to 400 mg daily as either a single daily dose or divided into two daily doses. The mean placebo-subtracted reductions in trough cuff blood pressure achieved by INSPRA in these studies at doses up to 200 mg are shown in Figures 3 and 4.

Figure 3: INSPRA Dose Response - Trough Cuff SBP Placebo-Subtracted Adjusted Mean Change from Baseline in Hypertension Studies

View Enlarged Table

Figure 4: INSPRA Dose Response - Trough Cuff SBP Placebo-Subtracted Adjusted Mean Change from Baseline in Hypertension Studies

View Enlarged Table

Patients treated with INSPRA 50 to 200 mg daily experienced significant decreases in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure at trough with differences from placebo of 6–13 mm Hg (systolic) and 3–7 mm Hg (diastolic). These effects were confirmed by assessments with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). In these studies, assessments of 24-hour ABPM data demonstrated that INSPRA, administered once or twice daily, maintained antihypertensive efficacy over the entire dosing interval. However, at a total daily dose of 100 mg, INSPRA administered as 50 mg twice per day produced greater trough cuff (4/3 mm Hg) and ABPM (2/1 mm Hg) blood pressure reductions than 100 mg given once daily.

Blood pressure lowering was apparent within 2 weeks from the start of therapy with INSPRA, with maximal antihypertensive effects achieved within 4 weeks. Stopping INSPRA following treatment for 8 to 24 weeks in six studies did not lead to adverse event rates in the week following withdrawal of INSPRA greater than following placebo or active control withdrawal. Blood pressures in patients not taking other antihypertensives rose 1 week after withdrawal of INSPRA by about 6/3 mm Hg, suggesting that the antihypertensive effect of INSPRA was maintained through 8 to 24 weeks.

Blood pressure reductions with INSPRA in the two fixed-dose monotherapy studies and other studies using titrated doses, as well as concomitant treatments, were not significantly different when analyzed by age, gender, or race with one exception. In a study in patients with low renin hypertension, blood pressure reductions in Blacks were smaller than those in whites during the initial titration period with INSPRA.

INSPRA has been studied concomitantly with treatment with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, and hydrochlorothiazide. When administered concomitantly with one of these drugs INSPRA usually produced its expected antihypertensive effects.

There was no significant change in average heart rate among patients treated with INSPRA in the combined clinical studies. No consistent effects of INSPRA on heart rate, QRS duration, or PR or QT interval were observed in 147 normal subjects evaluated for electrocardiographic changes during pharmacokinetic studies.


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Patient Information

Patients receiving INSPRA should be informed:

  • Not to use strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole, clarithromycin, nefazodone, ritonavir, and nelfinavir.
  • Not to use potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium without consulting the prescribing physician.
  • To call their physician if they experience dizziness, diarrhea, vomiting, rapid or irregular heartbeat, lower extremity edema, or difficulty breathing.
  • That periodic monitoring of blood pressure and serum potassium is important [see CONTRAINDICATIONS; WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS; and DRUG INTERACTIONS].


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Consumer Overview Uses

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

 

EPLERENONE - ORAL

 

(eh-PLER-en-own)

 

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Inspra

 

USES: This medication is used alone or in combination with other medicines to treat high blood pressure. It works by blocking a chemical (aldosterone) in your body which in turn lowers the amount of sodium and water the body retains. Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks and kidney problems. It is also used to treat congestive heart failure following a heart attack.

 

HOW TO USE: Take this medication by mouth, usually once or twice daily, with or without food, or as directed by your doctor. Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same time(s) each day.

Dosage is based on your medical condition (high blood pressure, congestive heart failure), laboratory test results, and response to therapy. It may take up to 4 weeks for this medication to fully affect your blood pressure.

It is important to continue taking this medication even if you feel well. Most people with high blood pressure do not feel sick.

Consumer Overview Side Effect

SIDE EFFECTS: See also How to Use section.

Headache, dizziness, diarrhea, stomach pain, nausea, cough or flu-like symptoms (such as fever, chills, unusual tiredness) may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these rare but serious side effects occur: abnormal vaginal bleeding, enlarged or sore breasts in males, symptoms of a high potassium blood level (such as muscle weakness, slow/irregular heartbeat).

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

 

Read the Inspra (eplerenone) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

PRECAUTIONS: Before taking eplerenone, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: high potassium blood levels (hyperkalemia), severe kidney disease, diabetes.

This medication may increase your potassium levels. Before using potassium supplements or salt substitutes that contain potassium, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

This drug may make you dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Limit alcoholic beverages.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

Older adults may be more sensitive to the effects of this drug, especially the raising of potassium blood levels.

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Consumer Overview Missed Dose

DRUG INTERACTIONS: See also Precautions section.

The effects of some drugs can change if you take other drugs or herbal products at the same time. This can increase your risk for serious side effects or may cause your medications not to work correctly. These drug interactions are possible, but do not always occur. Your doctor or pharmacist can often prevent or manage interactions by changing how you use your medications or by close monitoring.

To help your doctor or pharmacist give you the best care, be sure to tell your doctor or pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products) before starting treatment with this product. While using this product, do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any other medicines you are using without your doctor's approval.

Some of the products that may interact with this drug include: drugs that may increase the level of potassium in the blood (such as birth control pills containing drospirenone, potassium sparing "water pills" such as amiloride/spironolactone/triamterene), lithium.

Other medications can affect the removal of eplerenone from your body, which may affect how eplerenone works. Examples include azole antifungals (such as fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole), boceprevir, clarithromycin, nefazodone, HIV protease inhibitors (such as nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir), a certain combination HIV medication (elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir), St. John's wort, telaprevir, telithromycin, verapamil, among others.

Check the labels on all your medicines (such as cough-and-cold products, diet aids, or NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, naproxen) because they may contain ingredients that could increase your blood pressure or worsen your heart failure. Ask your pharmacist for more details.

This document does not contain all possible interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use. Share this list with your doctor and pharmacist to lessen your risk for serious medication problems.

 

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: severe dizziness, severe muscle weakness, or irregular heartbeat.

 

NOTES: Do not share this medication with others.

Lifestyle changes that may help this medication work better include exercising, stopping smoking, and eating a low-cholesterol/low-fat diet. Consult your doctor for more details.

Laboratory and/or medical tests (such as potassium blood levels, kidney function tests) should be performed before you start eplerenone and periodically during your treatment to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

Have your blood pressure checked regularly while taking this medication. Learn how to monitor your own blood pressure at home, and share the results with your doctor.

 

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

 

STORAGE: Store at room temperature at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Brief storage between 59-86 degrees F (15-30 degrees C) is permitted. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

 

Information last revised December 2013. Copyright(c) 2013 First Databank, Inc.

Patient Detailed Side Effect

Brand Names: Inspra

Generic Name: eplerenone (Pronunciation: ep LER e none)

  • What is eplerenone (Inspra)?
  • What are the possible side effects of this drug (Inspra)?
  • What is the most important information I should know about eplerenone (Inspra)?
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking eplerenone (Inspra)?
  • How should I take eplerenone (Inspra)?
  • What happens if I miss a dose (Inspra)?
  • What happens if I overdose (Inspra)?
  • What should I avoid while taking eplerenone (Inspra)?
  • What other drugs will affect eplerenone (Inspra)?
  • Where can I get more information?

What is eplerenone (Inspra)?

Eplerenone blocks the actions of the hormone aldosterone in the body. Aldosterone is important for the regulation of blood pressure.

Eplerenone is used to treat congestive heart failure after a heart attack. Eplerenone is also used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension).

Eplerenone may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Eplerenone 25 mg-APO

round, yellow, imprinted with APO, EP 25

What are the possible side effects of this drug (Inspra)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; severe stomach pain; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • high potassium (slow heart rate, weak pulse, muscle weakness, tingly feeling); or
  • low potassium (confusion, uneven heart rate, extreme thirst, increased urination, leg discomfort, muscle weakness or limp feeling).

Less serious side effects may include:

  • diarrhea, stomach pain;
  • cough;
  • dizziness;
  • tired feeling;
  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms;
  • vaginal bleeding; or
  • breast swelling or tenderness.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Inspra (eplerenone) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

What is the most important information I should know about eplerenone (Inspra)?

You may not be able to take this medication if you have severe kidney disease, high potassium levels in your blood, or type 2 diabetes with protein in your urine.

You also may not be able to take eplerenone if you are also taking ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), nefazodone, clarithromycin (Biaxin), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra), or troleandomycin (Tao).

Before taking eplerenone, tell your doctor if you have kidney or liver disease, high cholesterol, or high triglycerides.

Do not use salt substitutes or potassium supplements while taking eplerenone, unless your doctor has told you to.

To be sure this medication is helping your condition and is not causing harmful effects, your blood pressure will need to be checked on a regular basis. Your potassium levels will also need to be checked with frequent blood tests. Visit your doctor regularly.

If you are being treated for high blood pressure, keep using this medication even if you feel well. High blood pressure often has no symptoms. You may need to use blood pressure medication for the rest of your life.

Side Effects Centers
  • Inspra

Patient Detailed How Take

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking eplerenone (Inspra)?

You may not be able to take this medication if you are allergic to eplerenone, or if you have:

  • high potassium levels in your blood (hyperkalemia);
  • severe kidney disease;
  • type 2 diabetes with protein in your urine; or
  • if you are also taking ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), nefazodone, clarithromycin (Biaxin), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra), or troleandomycin (Tao).

To make sure you can safely take eplerenone, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

  • kidney disease;
  • liver disease; or
  • high cholesterol or triglycerides;

FDA pregnancy category B. This medication is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.

It is not known whether eplerenone passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I take eplerenone (Inspra)?

Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results.

Eplerenone may be taken with or without food.

To be sure this medication is helping your condition and is not causing harmful effects, your blood pressure will need to be checked on a regular basis. Your potassium levels will also need to be checked with frequent blood tests. Visit your doctor regularly.

If you are being treated for high blood pressure, keep using this medication even if you feel well. High blood pressure often has no symptoms. You may need to use blood pressure medication for the rest of your life.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Side Effects Centers
  • Inspra

Patient Detailed Avoid Taking

What happens if I miss a dose (Inspra)?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose (Inspra)?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

Overdose symptoms may include slow heart rate, weak pulse, muscle weakness, dizziness, or feeling like you might pass out.

What should I avoid while taking eplerenone (Inspra)?

Do not use salt substitutes or potassium supplements while taking eplerenone, unless your doctor has told you to.

What other drugs will affect eplerenone (Inspra)?

Many drugs can interact with eplerenone. Below is just a partial list. Tell your doctor if you are using:

  • lithium (Lithobid, Eskalith, others);
  • other blood pressure medications such as candesartan (Atacand), eprosartan (Teveten), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), olmesartan (Benicar), telmisartan (Micardis), or valsartan (Diovan);
  • an antibiotic such as clarithromycin (Biaxin) or erythromycin (E.E.S., EryPed, Ery-Tab, Erythrocin, Pediazole);
  • an antifungal medication such as fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral);
  • an ACE inhibitor such as benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), fosinopril (Monopril), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), ramipril (Altace), or trandolapril (Mavik);
  • an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn, Naprelan, Treximet), celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Arthrotec, Cambia, Cataflam, Voltaren, Flector Patch, Pennsaid, Solareze), indomethacin (Indocin), meloxicam (Mobic), and others;
  • HIV/AIDS medicine such as nelfinavir (Viracept) or ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra);
  • an "SSRI" antidepressant such as fluoxetine (Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), or paroxetine (Paxil); or
  • an antidepressant such as amitriptyline (Elavil, Vanatrip, Limbitrol), doxepin (Sinequan, Silenor), nortriptyline (Pamelor), and others.

This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with eplerenone. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about eplerenone.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2013 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 4.05. Revision date: 11/23/2011.

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