Drugs Details

Drugs Info of Gleostine
Drugs Details
  • Drugs Type  : FDA
  • Date : 18th Feb 2015 06:15 am
  • Brand Name : Gleostine
  • Generic Name : (lomustine) Capsules
Descriptions

Gleostine™ (lomustine) (CCNU) is one of the nitrosoureas used in the treatment of certain neoplastic diseases. It is 1-(2-chloro-ethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea. It is a yellow powder with the empirical formula of C9H16ClN3O2 and a molecular weight of 233.71. Gleostine is soluble in 10% ethanol (0.05 mg per mL) and in absolute alcohol (70 mg per mL). Gleostine is relatively insoluble in water ( < 0.05 mg per mL).

It is relatively un-ionized at a physiological pH.

Inactive ingredients in Gleostine Capsules are magnesium stearate and mannitol.

The structural formula is:

 

Gleostine™ (lomustine) Structural Formula Illustration

Gleostine is available in 10 mg, 40 mg, and 100 mg capsules for oral administration.

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Indications

Gleostine has been shown to be useful as a single agent in addition to other treatment modalities, or in established combination therapy with other approved chemotherapeutic agents in the following:

Brain tumors - both primary and metastatic, in patients who have already received appropriate surgical and/or radiotherapeutic procedures.

Hodgkin's disease - secondary therapy in combination with other approved drugs in patients who relapse while being treated with primary therapy, or who fail to respond to primary therapy.

Dosage Administration

The recommended dose of Gleostine in adult and pediatric patients as a single agent in previously untreated patients is 130 mg/m² as a single oral dose every 6 weeks (see PATIENT INFORMATION and HOW SUPPLIED: Directions to the Pharmacist). In individuals with compromised bone marrow function, the dose should be reduced to 100 mg/m² every 6 weeks. When Gleostine is used in combination with other myelosuppressive drugs, the doses should be adjusted accordingly. All doses of Gleostine must be rounded to the nearest 10 mg by the prescriber (see HOW SUPPLIED).

Doses subsequent to the initial dose should be adjusted according to the hematologic response of the patient to the preceding dose. The following schedule is suggested as a guide to dosage adjustment:

 

Nadir After Prior Dose Percentage of Prior Dose to be Given
Leukocytes (/mm³) Platelets (/mm³)
≥ 4000 ≥ 100,000 100%
3000-3999 75,000-99,999 100%
2000-2999 25,000-74,999 70%
< 2000 < 25,000 50%

A repeat course of Gleostine should not be given until circulating blood elements have returned to acceptable levels (platelets above 100,000/mm³; leukocytes above 4000/mm³), and this is usually in 6 weeks. Adequate number of neutrophils should be present on a peripheral blood smear. Blood counts should be monitored weekly and repeat courses should not be given before 6 weeks because the hematologic toxicity is delayed and cumulative.

How Supplied

Gleostine™ Capsules are available in individual bottles of 5 capsules each.

NDC 58181-3032-5 100 mg capsules (Green/Green)
NDC
58181-3031-5 40 mg capsules (White/Green)
NDC 58181-3030-5 10 mg capsules (White/White)

Stability

Gleostine Capsules are stable for the lot life indicated on package labeling when stored in well-closed containers at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Avoid excessive heat (over 40°C, 104°F).

Directions To The Pharmacist

Confirm the total dose prescribed by the physician can be obtained by determining the appropriate combination of capsule strengths. Only the appropriate number of Gleostine capsules required for the administration of a single dose should be dispensed.

In order to provide the proper dose of Gleostine, patients should be aware that the prescribed dose may be made up of 2 or more different strengths and colors of capsules and that each strength must be dispensed separately. Inform patients that Gleostine is taken as a single oral dose and will not be repeated for at least 6 weeks. Daily use of the recommended dose may lead to toxicities and fatal outcomes.

Caution should be exercised when handling Gleostine Capsules. Procedures for proper handling and disposal of anticancer drugs should be utilized. Several guidelines on this subject have been published.1-4 To minimize the risk of dermal exposure, always wear impervious gloves when handling bottles containing Gleostine Capsules. Gleostine Capsules should not be broken. Personnel should avoid exposure to broken capsules. If contact occurs, wash immediately and thoroughly. More information is available in the references listed below.

REFERENCES

1. NIOSH Alert: Preventing occupational exposures to antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings. 2004. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-165.

2. OSHA Technical Manual, TED 1-0.15A, Section VI: Chapter 2. Controlling Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Drugs. OSHA, 1999. http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_vi/otm_vi_2.html

3. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ASHP guidelines on handling hazardous drugs. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2006;63:1172–1193.

4. Polovich M, White JM, Kelleher LO, eds. 2005. Chemotherapy and biotherapy guidelines and recommendations for practice. 2nd ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Oncology Nursing Society.

Manufactured by Corden Pharma Latina S.p.A., Sermoneta (LT), Italy for: NextSource Biotechnolgy, LLC Miami, FL 33155 USA. Rev May 2014

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Side Effects

Hematologic Toxicity

The most frequent and most serious toxicity of Gleostine is delayed myelosuppression. It usually occurs 4 to 6 weeks after drug administration and is dose related. Thrombocytopenia occurs at about 4 weeks postadministration and persists for 1 to 2 weeks. Leukopenia occurs at 5 to 6 weeks after a dose of Gleostine and persists for 1 to 2 weeks. Approximately 65% of patients receiving 130 mg/m² develop white blood counts below 5000 wbc/mm³. Thirty-six percent developed white blood counts below 3000 wbc/mm³. Thrombocytopenia is generally more severe than leukopenia. However, both may be dose-limiting toxicities.

Gleostine may produce cumulative myelosuppression, manifested by more depressed indices or longer duration of suppression after repeated doses.

The occurrence of acute leukemia and bone marrow dysplasias have been reported in patients following long-term nitrosourea therapy.

Anemia also occurs, but is less frequent and less severe than thrombocytopenia or leukopenia.

Pulmonary Toxicity

Pulmonary toxicity characterized by pulmonary infiltrates and/or fibrosis has been reported rarely with Gleostine. Onset of toxicity has occurred after an interval of 6 months or longer from the start of therapy with cumulative doses of Gleostine usually greater than 1100 mg/m² . There is 1 report of pulmonary toxicity at a cumulative dose of only 600 mg.

Delayed onset pulmonary fibrosis occurring up to 17 years after treatment has been reported in patients who received related nitrosoureas in childhood and early adolescence (1–16 years) combined with cranial radiotherapy for intracranial tumors. There appeared to be some late reduction of pulmonary function of all long-term survivors. This form of lung fibrosis may be slowly progressive and has resulted in death in some cases. In this long-term study of carmustine, all those initially treated at less than 5 years of age died of delayed pulmonary fibrosis.

Gastrointestinal Toxicity

Nausea and vomiting may occur 3 to 6 hours after an oral dose and usually last less than 24 hours. Prior administration of antiemetics is effective in diminishing and sometimes preventing this side effect. Nausea and vomiting can also be reduced if Gleostine is administered to fasting patients.

Hepatotoxicity

A reversible type of hepatic toxicity, manifested by increased transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin levels, has been reported in a small percentage of patients receiving Gleostine.

Nephrotoxicity

Renal abnormalities consisting of progressive azotemia, decrease in kidney size, and renal failure have been reported in patients who received large cumulative doses after prolonged therapy with Gleostine. Kidney damage has also been reported occasionally in patients receiving lower total doses.

Other Toxicities

Stomatitis, alopecia, optic atrophy, and visual disturbances, such as blindness, have been reported infrequently.

Neurological reactions, such as disorientation, lethargy, ataxia, and dysarthria have been noted in some patients receiving Gleostine. However, the relationship to medication in these patients is unclear.

Read the Gleostine (lomustine capsules) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

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Interactions

No information provided.

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Warnings

Since the major toxicity is delayed bone marrow suppression, blood counts should be monitored weekly for at least 6 weeks after a dose (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). At the recommended dosage, courses of Gleostine should not be given more frequently than every 6 weeks.

The bone marrow toxicity of Gleostine is cumulative and therefore dosage adjustment must be considered on the basis of nadir blood counts from prior dose (see dosage adjustment table under DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Pulmonary toxicity from Gleostine appears to be dose related (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Long-term use of nitrosoureas has been reported to be possibly associated with the development of secondary malignancies.

Liver and renal function tests should be monitored periodically (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Pregnancy Category D

Gleostine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Lomustine is embryotoxic and teratogenic in rats and embryotoxic in rabbits at dose levels equivalent to the human dose. There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking (receiving) this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant.

Precautions

General

In all instances where the use of Gleostine is considered for chemotherapy, the physician must evaluate the need and usefulness of the drug against the risks of toxic effects or adverse reactions. Most such adverse reactions are reversible if detected early. When such effects or reactions do occur, the drug should be reduced in dosage or discontinued and appropriate corrective measures should be taken according to the clinical judgment of the physician. Reinstitution of Gleostine therapy should be carried out with caution and with adequate consideration of the further need for the drug and alertness as to possible recurrence of toxicity.

Laboratory Tests

Due to delayed bone marrow suppression, blood counts should be monitored weekly for at least 6 weeks after a dose.

Baseline pulmonary function studies should be conducted along with frequent pulmonary function tests during treatment. Patients with a baseline below 70% of the predicted Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) or Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLCO) are particularly at risk.

Since Gleostine may cause liver dysfunction, it is recommended that liver function tests be monitored periodically.

Renal function tests should also be monitored periodically.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

Lomustine is carcinogenic in rats and mice, producing a marked increase in tumor incidence in doses approximating those employed clinically. Nitrosourea therapy does have carcinogenic potential in humans (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Lomustine also affects fertility in male rats at doses somewhat higher than the human dose.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category D

See WARNINGS.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Gleostine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

See ADVERSE REACTIONS: Pulmonary Toxicity and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.

Geriatric Use

No data from clinical studies of Gleostine are available for patients 65 years of age and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Lomustine and its metabolites are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and renal function should be monitored.

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OverDose

Accidental overdose with lomustine has been reported, including fatal cases. Accidental overdose has been associated with bone marrow suppression, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, dizziness, abnormal hepatic function, cough, and shortness of breath.

No proven antidotes have been established for Gleostine overdosage. In case of overdose, appropriate supportive measures should be taken.

ContrainDications

Gleostine should not be given to individuals who have demonstrated a previous hypersensitivity to it.

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Clinical Pharamacology

Although it is generally agreed that lomustine alkylates DNA and RNA, it is not cross resistant with other alkylators. As with other nitrosoureas, it may also inhibit several key enzymatic processes by carbamoylation of amino acids in proteins.

Lomustine may be given orally. Following oral administration of radioactive lomustine at doses ranging from 30 mg/m² to 100 mg/m², about half of the radioactivity given was excreted in the urine in the form of degradation products within 24 hours.

The serum half-life of the metabolites ranges from 16 hours to 2 days. Tissue levels are comparable to plasma levels at 15 minutes after intravenous administration.

Because of the high lipid solubility and the relative lack of ionization at physiological pH, lomustine crosses the blood-brain barrier quite effectively. Levels of radioactivity in the CSF are 50% or greater than those measured concurrently in plasma.

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Patient Information

Provide patients with the following information and instructions:

In order to provide the proper dose of Gleostine, the dose may be made up of 2 or more different strengths and colors of capsules. Each strength must be dispensed separately by the pharmacist.

  1. Gleostine is given as a single oral dose and will not be repeated for at least 6 weeks. Daily use of the recommended dose may lead to toxicities and fatal outcomes.
  2. Patients may experience nausea and vomiting that usually last less than 24 hours. Patients may also experience loss of appetite that may last for several days.
  3. Instruct patients to contact their physician if they develop any of the following reactions: fever, chills, sore throat, unusual bleeding or bruising, shortness of breath, dry cough, swelling of feet or lower legs, mental confusion, or yellowing of eyes and skin.

Instruct patients to wear impervious (rubber or latex) gloves when handling Gleostine Capsules.

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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