Drugs Details

Drugs Info of Nebupent, Pentam 300
Drugs Details
  • Drugs Type  : FDA
  • Date : 23rd Feb 2015 07:06 am
  • Brand Name : Nebupent, Pentam 300
  • Generic Name : pentamidine (Pronunciation: pen TAM e deen)
Descriptions

NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate), an antifungal agent, is a nonpyrogenic lyophilized product. After reconstitution with Sterile Water for Injection, USP, NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) is administered by inhalation via the Respirgard® II nebulizer [Marquest, Englewood, CO] (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Pentamidine isethionate, 4,4'-[1,5-pentane-diylbis(oxy)]bis-benzenecarboximidamid, is a white crystalline powder soluble in water and glycerin and insoluble in ether, acetone, and chloroform.

 

NebuPent ® (pentamidine isethionate) Structural Formula Illustration

C19H24N4O2•2C2H6O4S            592.68

Each vial contains 300 mg pentamidine isethionate.

What are the possible side effects of pentamidine (Nebupent, Pentam 300)?

Side effects with pentamidine are not common. Serious side effects include:

  • an allergic reaction (shortness of breath; closing of the throat; hives; swelling of the lips, face, or tongue; rash; or fainting);
  • blurred vision;
  • chest pain or irregular heart beat;
  • difficulty breathing;
  • dizziness, confusion, fainting spells or excessive tiredness;
  • drastic appetite changes;
  • pain or irritation at the injection site;
  • mouth ulcers or irritations;
  • severe stomach pain;
  • bleeding or bruising;
  • severe...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Nebupent »

What are the precautions when taking pentamidine isethionate (Nebupent)?

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor, respiratory therapist, or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: bleeding/blood disorders, breathing problems (such as asthma), diabetes, kidney disease, liver problems, smoking.

This drug may make you dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs,...

Read All Potential Precautions of Nebupent »

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Indications

NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) is indicated for the prevention of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) in high-risk, HIV-infected patients defined by one or both of the following criteria:

  1. a history of one or more episodes of PJP
  2. a peripheral CD4+ (T4 helper/inducer) lymphocyte count less than or equal to 200/mm³.

These indications are based on the results of an 18-month randomized, doseresponse trial in high risk HIV-infected patients and on existing epidemiological data from natural history studies.

The patient population of the controlled trial consisted of 408 patients, 237 of whom had a history of one or more episodes of PJP. The remaining patients without a history of PJP included 55 patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and 116 patients with other AIDS diagnoses, ARC or asymptomatic HIV infection. Patients were randomly assigned to receive NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) via the Respirgard® II nebulizer at one of the following three doses: 30 mg every two weeks (n=135), 150 mg every two weeks (n=134) or 300 mg every four weeks (n=139). The results of the trial demonstrated a significant protective effect (p < 0.01) against PJP with the 300 mg every four week dosage regimen compared to the 30 mg every two week dosage regimen. The 300 mg dose regimen reduced the risk of developing PJP by 50 to 70% compared to the 30 mg regimen. A total of 293 patients (72% of all patients) also received zidovudine at sometime during the trial. The analysis of the data demonstrated the efficacy of the 300 mg dose even after adjusting for the effect of zidovudine.

The results of the trial further demonstrate that the dose and frequency of dosing are important to the efficacy of NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) prophylaxis in that multiple analyses consistently demonstrated a trend toward greater efficacy with 300 mg every four weeks as compared to 150 mg every two weeks.

No dose-response was observed for reduction in overall mortality; however, mortality from PJP was low in all three dosage groups.

Dosage Administration

IMPORTANT: NEBUPENT (pentamidine isethionate) MUST BE DISSOLVED ONLY IN STERILE WATER FOR INJECTION, USP. DO NOT USE SALINE SOLUTION FOR RECONSTITUTION BECAUSE THE DRUG WILL PRECIPITATE. DO NOT MIX THE NEBUPENT (pentamidine isethionate) SOLUTION WITH ANY OTHER DRUGS. DO NOT USE THE RESPIRGARD® II NEBULIZER TO ADMINISTER A BRONCHODILATOR.

Reconstitution

The contents of one vial (300 mg) must be dissolved in 6 mL Sterile Water for Injection, USP. Place the entire reconstituted contents of the vial into the Respirgard® II nebulizer reservoir for administration.

Dosage

The recommended adult dosage of NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) for the prevention of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is 300 mg once every four weeks administered via the Respirgard® II nebulizer.

The dose should be delivered until the nebulizer chamber is empty (approximately 30 to 45 minutes). The flow rate should be 5 to 7 liters per minute from a 40 to 50 pounds per square inch (PSI) air or oxygen source. Alternatively, a 40 to 50 PSI air compressor can be used with flow limited by setting the flowmeter at 5 to 7 liters per minute or by setting the pressure at 22 to 25 PSI. Low pressure (less than 20 PSI) compressors should not be used.

Stability

Freshly prepared solutions for aerosol use are recommended. After reconstitution with sterile water, the NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) solution is stable for 48 hours in the original vial at room temperature if protected from light.

How Supplied

Product No. NDC No.  
87715 63323-877-15 NebuPent® (pentamidine isethionate) 300 mg lyophilized product in single dose vials, indivi-dually packaged.

Store dry product at 20°to 25°C (68°to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Protect the dry product and the reconstituted solution from light.

APP Pharmaceuticals, LLC Schaumburg, IL 60173. Revised: December 2010

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Side Effects

The most frequently reported unsolicited adverse events (1 to 5%) in clinical trials, regardless of their relation to NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) therapy were as follows (n=931):

Body as a Whole: Night sweats.

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea and nausea.

Hematologic: Anemia.

Infection: Bronchitis, non-specific herpes, herpes zoster, non-specific influenza, oral Candida, pharyngitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract.

Nervous System: Headache.

Respiratory System: Chest pain, cough, and wheezing.

Special Senses: Bad taste.

Adverse events of less than 1% incidence were as follows (No causal relationship to treatment has been established for these adverse events):

Body as a Whole: Allergic reaction, non-specific allergy, body odor, facial edema, fever, leg edema, lethargy, low body temperature, and temperature abnormality.

Cardiovascular: Cerebrovascular accident, hypotension, hypertension, palpitations, poor circulation, syncope, tachycardia, vasodilatation and vasculitis.

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal cramps, abdominal pain, constipation, dry mouth, dyspepsia, gastritis, gastric ulcer, gingivitis, hiatal hernia, hypersalivation, oral ulcer/abscess, splenomegaly, and vomiting.

Hematological: Eosinophilia, neutropenia, non-specific cytopenia, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia.

Hepatic: Hepatitis, hepatomegaly, and hepatic dysfunction.

Infection: Bacterial pneumonia, central venous line related sepsis, cryptococcal meningitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis, CMV retinitis, esophageal Candida, histoplasmosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, non-specific mycoplasma, oral herpes, non- specific otitis, non-specific pharyngitis, pharyngeal herpes, non-specific serious infection, tonsillitis, tuberculosis, and viral encephalitis.

Metabolic: Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and hypocalcemia.

Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, gout, and myalgia.

Neurological: Anxiety, confusion, depression, drowsiness, emotional lability, hallucination, hypesthesia, insomnia, memory loss, neuralgia, neuropathy, non- specific neuropathy, nervousness, paranoia, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy, seizure, tremors, unsteady gait, and vertigo.

Reproductive: Miscarriage.

Respiratory system: Asthma, bronchitis, bronchospasm, chest congestion, chest tightness, coryza, cyanosis, eosinophilic or interstitial pneumonitis, gagging, hemoptysis, hyperventilation, laryngitis, laryngospasm, non-specific lung disorder, nasal congestion, pleuritis, pneumothorax, rales, rhinitis, shortness of breath, non-specific sputum, and tachypnea.

Skin: Desquamation, dry and breaking hair, dry skin, erythema, non-specific dermatitis, pruritus, rash, and urticaria.

Special senses: Blepharitis, blurred vision, conjunctivitis, contact lens discomfort, eye pain or discomfort, hemianopsia, loss of taste, non-specific odor, and smell.

Urogenital: Flank pain, incontinence, nephritis, renal failure, and renal pain.

In a clinical trial where some adverse events were solicited by investigators, the incidences were as follows:

Cough (62.7%)
Decreased appetite (50.0%)
Dizziness or light-headedness (45.1%)
Fatigue (65.7%)
Fever (51.0%)
Non-specific serious infection (15.2%)
Shortness of breath (48.3%)
Wheezing (32.4%)

From post-marketing clinical experience with NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) the following spontaneous adverse events have been reported: anaphylaxis, colitis, diabetes, dyspnea, esophigitis, hematochezia, increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels, melena, pancreatitis (see WARNINGS), syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), and torsade de pointes.

Read the Nebupent (pentamidine isethionate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

Interactions

While specific studies on drug interactions with NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) have not been conducted, the majority of patients in clinical trials received concomitant medications, including zidovudine, with no reported interactions. Because the nephrotoxic effects may be additive, the concomitant or sequential use of NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) and other nephrotoxic drugs such as aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, cisplatin, foscarnet, or vancomycin should be closely monitored and avoided, if possible.

Read the Nebupent Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

Learn More »

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Warnings

The potential for development of acute PJP still exists in patients receiving NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) prophylaxis. Therefore, any patient with symptoms suggestive of the presence of a pulmonary infection, including but not limited to dyspnea, fever or cough, should receive a thorough medical evaluation and appropriate diagnostic tests for possible acute PJP as well as for other opportunistic and nonopportunistic pathogens. The use of NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) may alter the clinical and radiographic features of PJP and could result in an atypical presentation, including but not limited to mild disease or focal infection.

Prior to initiating NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) prophylaxis, symptomatic patients should be evaluated appropriately to exclude the presence of PJP. The recommended dose of NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) for the prevention of PJP is insufficient to treat acute PJP.

Precautions

IMPORTANT: DO NOT MIX THE NEBUPENT (pentamidine isethionate) SOLUTION WITH ANY OTHER DRUGS. DO NOT USE THE RESPIRGARD® II NEBULIZER TO ADMINISTER A BRONCHODILATOR. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Pulmonary

Inhalation of NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) may induce bronchospasm or cough. This has been noted particularly in some patients who have a history of smoking or asthma. In clinical trials, cough and bronchospasm were the most frequently reported adverse experiences associated with NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) administration (38% and 15%, respectively of patients receiving the 300 mg dose); however less than 1% of the doses were interrupted or terminated due to these effects. For the majority of patients, cough and bronchospasm were controlled by administration of an aerosolized bronchodilator (only 1% of patients withdrew from the study due to treatmentassociated cough or bronchospasm). In patients who experience bronchospasm or cough, administration of an inhaled bronchodilator prior to giving each NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) dose may minimize recurrence of the symptoms.

General

The extent and consequence of pentamidine accumulation following chronic inhalation therapy are not known. As a result, patients receiving NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) should be closely monitored for the development of serious adverse reactions that have occurred in patients receiving parenteral pentamidine, including hypotension, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, hypocalcemia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, hepatic or renal dysfunction, ventricular tachycardia, pancreatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, hyperkalemia and abnormal ST segment of ECG.

Extrapulmonary infection with P. jiroveci has been reported infrequently. Most, but not all, of the cases have been reported in patients who have a history of PJP. The presence of extrapulmonary pneumocystosis should be considered when evaluating patients with unexplained signs and symptoms.

Cases of acute pancreatitis have been reported in patients receiving aerosolized pentamidine. NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) should be discontinued if signs or symptoms of acute pancreatitis develop.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis and Impairment of Fertility

Literature reports indicate that pentamidine was not mutagenic in the Ames bacterial (S. typhimurium) test and did not induce an increase in chromosomal aberrations in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell or in human lymphocytes in vitro . No studies have been conducted to determine effects of pentamidine isethionate on carcinogenicity or fertility.

Pregnancy–Pregnancy Category C

There are no adequate and well controlled studies of NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) in pregnant women. A literature report indicated that intravenously administered pentamidine in pregnant rats at 4 mg/kg/day was embryolethal; teratogenicity was not observed in this study. It is unknown whether pentamidine administered via the aerosolized route crosses the placenta at clinically significant concentrations. It is not known whether NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) , a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) should not be given to a nursing mother unless the potential benefits are judged to outweigh the unknown risks.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) in pediatric patients (birth to 16 years of age) have not been established.

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OverDose

Overdosage has not been reported with NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) . The symptoms and signs of overdosage are not known.

A serious overdosage, to the point of producing systemic drug levels similar to those following parenteral administration, would have the potential of producing similar types of serious systemic toxicity. (See PRECAUTIONS).

Available clinical pharmacology data (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY) suggest that a dose up to 40 times the recommended NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) dosage would be required to produce systemic levels similar to a single 4 mg/kg intravenous dose.

ContrainDications

NebuPent (pentamidine isethionate) is contraindicated in patients with a history of an anaphylactic reaction to inhaled or parenteral pentamidine isethionate.

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Clinical Pharamacology

Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

Studies suggest that the pentamidine isethionate interferes with microbial nuclear metabolism by inhibition of DNA, RNA, phospholipid and protein synthesis. However, the mode of action is not fully understood.

Activity in vitro and in vivo

Pentamidine isethionate, an aromatic diamidine, is known to have activity against Pneumocystis jiroveci.

Pharmacokinetics

In 5 AIDS patients with suspected Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP), the mean concentrations of pentamidine determined 18 to 24 hours after inhalation therapy were 23.2 ng/mL (range 5.1 to 43.0 ng/mL) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and 705 ng/mL (range 140 to 1336 ng/mL) in sediment after administration of a 300 mg single dose via the Respirgard® II nebulizer. In 3 AIDS patients with suspected PJP, the mean concentrations of pentamidine determined 18 to 24 hours after a 4 mg/kg intravenous dose were 2.6 ng/mL (range 1.5 to 4.0 ng/mL) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and 9.3 ng/mL (range 6.9 to 12.8 ng/mL) in sediment. In the patients who received aerosolized pentamidine, the peak plasma levels of pentamidine were at or below the lower limit of detection of the assay (2.3 ng/mL).

Following a single 2-hour intravenous infusion of 4 mg/kg of pentamidine isethionate to 6 AIDS patients, the mean plasma Cmax, T ½ and clearance were 612 ± /hr respectively. In another study of 371 ng/mL, 6.4 aerosolized pentamidine in 13 AIDS patients with acute PJP who received 4 mg/kg/day administered via the Ultra Vent® jet nebulizer, peak plasma levels of pentamidine averaged 18.8 ±ing the next 14 days of repeated dosing, the highest observed Cmax averaged 20.5 ± 21.2 ng/mL. In a third study, following daily administration of 600 mg of inhaled pentamidine isethionate with the Respirgard® II nebulizer for 21 days in 11 patients with acute PJP, mean plasma levels measured shortly after the 21st dose averaged 11.8 ± 10.0 ng/mL. Plasma substantially lower than those observed after a comparable intravenous dose. The extent of pentamidine accumulation and distribution following chronic inhalation therapy are not known.

In rats, intravenous administration of a 5 mg/kg dose resulted in concentrations of pentamidine in the liver and kidney that were 87.5 and 62.3-fold higher, respectively, than levels in those organs following 5 mg/kg administered as an aerosol. No pharmacokinetic data are available following aerosol administration of pentamidine in humans with impaired hepatic or renal function.

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Patient Information

No information provided. Please refer to the WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections.

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Consumer Overview Uses

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

 

PENTAMIDINE ISETHIONATE - INHALATION

 

(pen-TAM-i-deen EYE-se-THYE-oh-nate)

 

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Nebupent

 

USES: Pentamidine given by inhalation is used to prevent a serious lung infection (Pneumocystis pneumonia-PCP) in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Pentamidine belongs to a class of drugs known as antiprotozoals. It works by killing the organism that causes the infection.

 

HOW TO USE: This medication is given by a health care professional as directed by your doctor, usually once every 4 weeks. It is given using a special machine called a nebulizer that changes the solution to a fine mist that you inhale. Each treatment usually takes 30 to 45 minutes. You may also be given another inhaled medication (such as albuterol) to help open your airways before each treatment with pentamidine. Learn and follow all instructions for the use of this medication and the nebulizer. If you have any questions, ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist.

The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.

Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, mark your calendar to keep track of when to schedule the next dose.

Tell your doctor immediately if you develop symptoms of infection such as breathing problems, cough, or fever between treatments.

Consumer Overview Side Effect

SIDE EFFECTS: Cough, upset stomach, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, burning feeling in the throat, or unusual taste/dryness in the mouth may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor or respiratory therapist immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: chest tightness, breathing problems.

Though very unlikely, inhaled pentamidine might be absorbed into your body. Tell your doctor immediately if any of these rare but serious side effects occur: abdominal pain, easy bruising/bleeding, fast/irregular heartbeat, mental/mood changes (such as confusion, hallucinations), unusual decrease in the amount of urine, signs of anemia (such as severe tiredness, bluish skin/nails), signs of low blood pressure (such as severe dizziness, pale skin, fainting), signs of low blood sugar (such as sudden sweating, shaking, fast heartbeat, hunger), signs of high blood sugar (such as unusual increase in thirst or urination), signs of infection (such as fever, chills, persistent sore throat).

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

 

Read the Nebupent (pentamidine isethionate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

PRECAUTIONS: Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor, respiratory therapist, or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: bleeding/blood disorders, breathing problems (such as asthma), diabetes, kidney disease, liver problems, smoking.

This drug may make you dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Because breast milk can transmit HIV, do not breast-feed.

Consumer Overview Missed Dose

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

Some products that may interact with this drug include: other drugs that may affect the kidneys (including aminoglycosides such as tobramycin, NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or naproxen).

 

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

 

NOTES: Do not share this medication with others.

Keep all regular medical and laboratory appointments.

 

MISSED DOSE: For the best possible benefit, it is important to receive each scheduled dose of this medication as directed. If you miss a dose, contact your doctor immediately to establish a new dosing schedule.

 

STORAGE: Store at room temperature away from light. Use/discard the mixed solution within 48 hours. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

 

Information last revised March 2014. Copyright(c) 2014 First Databank, Inc.

Patient Detailed Side Effect

Brand Names: Nebupent, Pentam 300

Generic Name: pentamidine (Pronunciation: pen TAM e deen)

  • What is pentamidine (Nebupent)?
  • What are the possible side effects of pentamidine (Nebupent)?
  • What is the most important information I should know about pentamidine (Nebupent)?
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking pentamidine (Nebupent)?
  • How should I take pentamidine (Nebupent)?
  • What happens if I miss a dose (Nebupent)?
  • What happens if I overdose (Nebupent)?
  • What should I avoid while taking pentamidine (Nebupent)?
  • What other drugs will affect pentamidine (Nebupent)?
  • Where can I get more information?

What is pentamidine (Nebupent)?

Pentamidine is a type of antibiotic that fights protozoa in the body.

Pentamidine is used to prevent and treat serious infections such as Pneumocystis pneumonia.

Pentamidine may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.

What are the possible side effects of pentamidine (Nebupent)?

Side effects with pentamidine are not common. Serious side effects include:

  • an allergic reaction (shortness of breath; closing of the throat; hives; swelling of the lips, face, or tongue; rash; or fainting);
  • blurred vision;
  • chest pain or irregular heart beat;
  • difficulty breathing;
  • dizziness, confusion, fainting spells or excessive tiredness;
  • drastic appetite changes;
  • pain or irritation at the injection site;
  • mouth ulcers or irritations;
  • severe stomach pain;
  • bleeding or bruising;
  • severe headache;
  • chills;
  • increased thirst; or
  • seizures.

Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur. Talk to your doctor if you experience

  • taste changes;
  • diarrhea; or
  • nausea or vomiting.

Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Nebupent (pentamidine isethionate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

What is the most important information I should know about pentamidine (Nebupent)?

Pentamidine may affect blood sugar levels. Contact your doctor if you experience any low blood sugar symptoms including

  • increased appetite;
  • headache;
  • chills, pale skin, shakes, cold sweats; or
  • anxiety.

Pentamidine may affect blood sugar levels. Contact your doctor if you experience any high blood sugar symptoms including

  • increased thirst;
  • loss of appetite;
  • increase in amount or frequency or urination;
  • fruity smelling breath; or
  • drowsiness.

Your doctor may want you to have regular blood, heart function, and blood sugar evaluations during treatment with pentamidine to monitor progress and side effects.

Side Effects Centers
  • Nebupent

Patient Detailed How Take

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking pentamidine (Nebupent)?

Before taking this medication, tell your doctor if you have:

  • diabetes;
  • heart problems
  • blood pressure or circulation problems;
  • kidney disease;
  • pancreatitis;
  • asthma;
  • recent radiation therapy or treatment with chemotherapy;
  • a history of dehydration; or
  • special dietary restrictions.

You may not be able to take pentamidine, or you may require a dosage adjustment or special monitoring during treatment if you have any of the conditions listed above.

Pentamidine may affect blood sugar levels. Contact your doctor if you experience any low blood sugar symptoms including

  • increased appetite;
  • headache;
  • chills, pale skin, shakes, cold sweats; or
  • anxiety.

Pentamidine may affect blood sugar levels. Contact your doctor if you experience any high blood sugar symptoms including

  • increased thirst;
  • loss of appetite;
  • increase in amount or frequency or urination;
  • fruity smelling breath; or
  • drowsiness.

Your doctor may want you to have regular blood, heart function, and blood sugar evaluations during treatment with pentamidine to monitor progress and side effects.

Talk to your doctor if you develop an infection of any kind.

Pentamidine is in the FDA pregnancy category C. This means that it is not known whether pentamidine will harm an unborn baby. Do not take this medication without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant.

It is not known whether pentamidine passes into breast milk. Do not take this medication without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I take pentamidine (Nebupent)?

Injectable pentamidine can be administered as an injection into a muscle or by slow infusion. The injection should be administered in a clinical setting where a healthcare provider can monitor blood pressure other vital signs and where an emergency situation can be handled properly.

Your healthcare provider will store injectable pentamidine as directed by the manufacturer.

Pentamidine for inhalation may be administered via the Respigard II nebulizer as part of a home health regimen by a nurse, respiratory therapist or other healthcare practitioner.

Store the prepared solution for inhalation at room temperature, away from light. The solution should be used within 48 hours and any unused portion should be thrown away.

Side Effects Centers
  • Nebupent

Patient Detailed Avoid Taking

What happens if I miss a dose (Nebupent)?

Since the medication will be administered by a healthcare provider, missing a dose should not occur. If you have any questions contact your doctor.

What happens if I overdose (Nebupent)?

If an overdose of pentamidine is suspected, seek emergency medical attention or contact your healthcare provider immediately.

Pentamidine should be administered in a clinical setting where a healthcare provider can monitor vital signs (blood pressure, heart rates) and where an emergency situation can be handled immediately.

What should I avoid while taking pentamidine (Nebupent)?

Tell your doctor if you drink alcohol or caffeine drinks regularly, if you are a smoker or if you use illegal drugs. These factors can affect the way pentamidine works in your body.

What other drugs will affect pentamidine (Nebupent)?

Before taking pentamidine, tell your doctor if you are taking any of the following medicines:

  • azathioprine (Imuran);
  • carbamazepine (Tegretol, Epitol, Carbatrol);
  • antibiotics;
  • anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen (Advil), naproxen (Aleve), others)
  • cisplatin (Platinol)
  • didanosine (Videx)
  • zidovudine (Retrovir)
  • birth control pills;
  • ganciclovir (Cytovene)
  • blood pressure medications;
  • medication for diabetes;
  • valproic acid (Depakote);
  • medication for mental problems; or
  • metoclopramide (Reglan).

You may not be able to take pentamidine, or you may require a dosage adjustment or special monitoring during treatment if you are taking any of the medicines listed above.

Drugs other than those listed here may also interact with pentamidine. Talk to your doctor and pharmacist before taking any prescription or over-the-counter medicines including vitamins, minerals, and herbal products. .

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist has additional information about pentamidine written for health professionals that you may read.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2013 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 1.03. Revision date: 12/15/2010.

Your use of the content provided in this service indicates that you have read,understood and agree to the End-User License Agreement,which can be accessed by clicking on this link.

Healthwise

Side Effects Centers
  • Nebupent

Rx Scoops
Featured Topics
Advertisements
Copyrights ©2014: Rx Scoops - Designed & Developed By - GOIGI