Drugs Details

Drugs Info of Salagen
Drugs Details
  • Drugs Type  : Multum
  • Date : 16th Mar 2015 02:34 am
  • Brand Name : Salagen
  • Generic Name : pilocarpine (Pronunciation: pie low CAR peen)
Descriptions

SALAGEN® Tablets contain pilocarpine hydrochloride, a cholinergic agonist for oral use. Pilocarpine hydrochloride is a hygroscopic, odorless, bitter tasting white crystal or powder which is soluble in water and alcohol and virtually insoluble in most non-polar solvents. Pilocarpine hydrochloride, with a chemical name of (3S-cis)-2(3H)-Furanone, 3-ethyl-dihydro-4-[(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl] mono-hydrochloride, has a molecular weight of 244.72.

 

SALAGEN (pilocarpine hydrochloride) Structural Formula Illustration

Each 5 mg SALAGEN® Tablet for oral administration contains 5 mg of pilocarpine hydrochloride. Inactive ingredients in the tablet, the tablet's film coating, and polishing are: carnauba wax, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, stearic acid, titanium dioxide and other ingredients.

Each 7.5 mg SALAGEN® Tablet for oral administration contains 7.5 mg of pilocarpine hydrochloride. Inactive ingredients in the tablet, the tablet's film coating, and polishing are: carnauba wax, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, stearic acid, titanium dioxide, FD&C blue#2 aluminum lake, and other ingredients.

What are the possible side effects of pilocarpine (Salagen)?

Stop taking pilocarpine and seek emergency medical attention if you experience any of the following uncommon but serious side effects:

  • an allergic reaction (difficulty breathing; closing of the throat; swelling of the lips, tongue, or face; or hives);
  • difficulty breathing;
  • irregular heartbeats;
  • eye pain; or
  • confusion or changes in mental status or behavior.

Other, less serious side effects may also occur. Continue to take pilocarpine and talk to your doctor if you experience

  • changes in vision;
  • increased...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Salagen »

What are the precautions when taking pilocarpine hydrochloride (Salagen)?

Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: breathing problems (such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-COPD), certain eye conditions (such as night blindness, acute iritis, narrow-angle glaucoma), heart disease (such as chest pain, heart failure, heart attack, slow heartbeat), low or high blood pressure, liver problems, gallbladder disease (such as gallstones), kidney stones, mental/mood disorders (such as depression, psychoses,...

Read All Potential Precautions of Salagen »


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Indications

SALAGEN® Tablets are indicated for 1) the treatment of symptoms of dry mouth from salivary gland hypofunction caused by radiotherapy for cancer of the head and neck; and 2) the treatment of symptoms of dry mouth in patients with Sjogren's Syndrome.

Dosage Administration

Regardless of the indication, the starting dose in patients with moderate hepatic impairment should be 5 mg twice daily, followed by adjustment based on therapeutic response and tolerability. Patients with mild hepatic insufficiency do not require dosage reductions. The use of pilocarpine in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency is not recommended. If needed, refer to the Hepatic Insufficiency subsection of the Precautions section of this label for definitions of mild, moderate and severe hepatic impairment.

Head & Neck Cancer Patients

The recommended initial dose of SALAGEN® Tablets is 5 mg taken three times a day. Dosage should be titrated according to therapeutic response and tolerance. The usual dosage range is up to 15-30 mg per day. (Not to exceed 10 mg per dose.) Although early improvement may be realized, at least 12 weeks of uninterrupted therapy with SALAGEN® Tablets may be necessary to assess whether a beneficial response will be achieved. The incidence of the most common adverse events increases with dose. The lowest dose that is tolerated and effective should be used for maintenance.

Sjogren's Syndrome Patients

The recommended dose of SALAGEN® Tablets is 5 mg taken four times a day. Efficacy was established by 6 weeks of use.

How Supplied

SALAGEN® Tablets, 5 mg, are white, film coated, debossed round tablets, coded SAL 5. Each tablet contains 5 mg pilocarpine hydrochloride. They are supplied as follows:

NDC 62856-705-10 bottles of 100

Store up to 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F).

SALAGEN® Tablets, 7.5 mg, are blue, film coated, debossed round tablets, coded SAL 7.5. Each tablet contains 7.5 mg pilocarpine hydrochloride. They are supplied as follows:

NDC 62856-775-10 bottles of 100

Store up to 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F).

Manufactured by: 201370, Patheon Inc., Ontario, L5N 7K9. Manufactured for: Eisai Inc., Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677. January 2009


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Side Effects

Head & Neck Cancer Patients

In controlled studies, 217 patients received pilocarpine, of whom 68% were men and 32% were women. Race distribution was 91% Caucasian, 8% Black, and 1% of other origin. Mean age was approximately 58 years. The majority of patients were between 50 and 64 years (51%), 33% were 65 years and older and 16% were younger than 50 years of age. The most frequent adverse experiences associated with SALAGEN® Tablets were a consequence of the expected pharmacologic effects of pilocarpine.

 

Adverse Event Pilocarpine HCI Placebo (tid.)
10 mg t.i.d. (30 mg/day) 5 mg t.i.d. (15 mg/day)
Sweating N=121/68% N=141/ 29% N=152/9%
Nausea 15 6 4
Rhinitis 14 5 7
Diarrhea 7 4 5
Chills 15 3 <1
Flushing 13 8 3
Urinary Frequency 12 9 7
Dizziness 12 5 4
Asthenia 12 6 3

In addition, the following adverse events ( ≥3% incidence) were reported at dosages of 15-30 mg/day in the controlled clinical trials:

 

Adverse Event Pilocarpine HCI Placebo (tid.)
5-10 mg t.i.d. (15-30 mg/day)
Headache N=212/11% N=152/8%
Dyspepsia 7 5
Lacrimation 6 8
Edema 5 4
Abdominal Pain 4 4
Amblyopia 4 2
Vomiting 4 1
Pharyngitis 3 8
Hypertension 3 1

The following events were reported with treated head and neck cancer patients at incidences of 1% to 2% at dosages of 7.5 to 30 mg/day: abnormal vision, conjunctivitis, dysphagia, epistaxis, myalgias, pruritus, rash, sinusitis, tachycardia, taste perversion, tremor, voice alteration.

The following events were reported rarely in treated head and neck cancer patients ( <1%): Causal relation is unknown.

Body as a whole: body odor, hypothermia, mucous membrane abnormality

Cardiovascular: bradycardia, ECG abnormality, palpitations, syncope

Digestive: anorexia, increased appetite, esophagitis, gastrointestinal disorder, tongue disorder

Hematologic: leukopenia, lymphadenopathy

Nervous: anxiety, confusion, depression, abnormal dreams, hyperkinesia, hypesthesia, nervousness, parethesias, speech disorder, twitching

Respiratory: increased sputum, stridor, yawning

Skin: seborrhea

Special senses: deafness, eye pain, glaucoma

Urogenital: dysuria, metrorrhagia, urinary impairment

In long-term treatment were two patients with underlying cardiovascular disease of whom one experienced a myocardial infarct and another an episode of syncope. The association with drug is uncertain.

Sjogren's Syndrome Patients

In controlled studies, 376 patients received pilocarpine, of whom 5% were men and 95% were women.

Race distribution was 84% Caucasian, 9% Oriental, 3% Black, and 4% of other origin. Mean age was 55 years. The majority of patients were between 40 and 69 years (70%), 16% were 70 years and older and 14% were younger than 40 years of age. Of these patients, 161/629 (89/376 receiving pilocarpine) were over the age of 65 years. The adverse events reported by those over 65 years and those 65 years and younger were comparable except for notable trends for urinary frequency, diarrhea, and dizziness. The incidences of urinary frequency and diarrhea in the elderly were about double those of the non-elderly. The incidence of dizziness was about three times as high in the elderly as in the non-elderly. These adverse experiences were not considered to be serious. In the 2 placebo-controlled studies, the most common adverse events related to drug use were sweating, urinary frequency, chills, and vasodilatation (flushing). The most commonly reported reason for patient discontinuation of treatment was sweating. Expected pharmacologic effects of pilocarpine include the following adverse experiences associated with SALAGEN® Tablets:

 

Adverse Event Pilocarpine HCI Placebo (qid)
5 mg q.i.d. (20 mg/day)
Sweating N=255/40% N=253/7%
Urinary Frequency 10 4
Nausea 9 9
Flushing 9 2
Rhinitis 7 8
Diarrhea 6 7
Chills 4 2
Increased Salivation 3 0
Asthenia 2 2

In addition, the following adverse events ( ≥3% incidence) were reported at dosages of 20 mg/day in the controlled clinical trials:

 

Adverse Event Pilocarpine HCI Placebo (qid)
5 mg q.i.d. 20 mg/day
Headache N=255/13% N=253/19%
Flu Syndrome 9 9
Dyspepsia 7 7
Dizziness 6 7
Pain 4 2
Sinusitis 4 5
Abdominal Pain 3 4
Vomiting 3 1
Pharyngitis 2 5
Rash 2 3
Infection 2 6

The following events were reported in Sjogren's patients at incidences of 1% to 2% at dosing of 20 mg/day: accidental injury, allergic reaction, back pain, blurred vision, constipation, increased cough, edema, epistaxis, face edema, fever, flatulence, glossitis, lab test abnormalities, including chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis, myalgia, palpitation, pruritus, somnolence, stomatitis, tachycardia, tinnitus, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infection, and vaginitis.

The following events were reported rarely in treated Sjogren's patients ( <1%) at dosing of 10-30 mg/day: Causal relation is unknown.

Body as a whole: chest pain, cyst, death, moniliasis, neck pain, neck rigidity, photosensitivity reaction

Cardiovascular: angina pectoris, arrhythmia, ECG abnormality, hypotension, hypertension, intracranial hemorrhage, migraine, myocardial infarction

Digestive: anorexia, bilirubinemia, cholelithiasis, colitis, dry mouth, eructation, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal disorder, gingivitis, hepatitis, abnormal liver function tests, melena, nausea & vomiting, pancreatitis, parotid gland enlargement, salivary gland enlargement, sputum increased, taste loss, tongue disorder, tooth disorder

Hematologic: hematuria, lymphadenopathy, abnormal platelets, thrombocythemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombosis, abnormal WBC

Metabolic and Nutritional: peripheral edema, hypoglycemia

Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, arthritis, bone disorder, spontaneous bone fracture, pathological fracture, myasthenia, tendon disorder, tenosynovitis

Nervous: aphasia, confusion, depression, abnormal dreams, emotional lability, hyperkinesia, hypesthesia, insomnia, leg cramps, nervousness, parethesias, abnormal thinking, tremor

Respiratory: bronchitis, dyspnea, hiccup, laryngismus, laryngitis, pneumonia, viral infection, voice alteration

Skin: alopecia, contact dermatitis, dry skin, eczema, erythema nodosum, exfoliative dermatitis, herpes simplex, skin ulcer, vesiculobullous rash

Special Senses: cataract, conjunctivitis, dry eyes, ear disorder, ear pain, eye disorder, eye hemorrhage, glaucoma, lacrimation disorder, retinal disorder, taste perversion, abnormal vision

Urogenital: breast pain, dysuria, mastitis, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, ovarian disorder, pyuria, salpingitis, urethral pain, urinary urgency, vaginal hemorrhage, vaginal moniliasis

The following adverse experiences have been reported rarely with ocular pilocarpine: A-V block, agitation, ciliary congestion, confusion, delusion, depression, dermatitis, middle ear disturbance, eyelid twitching, malignant glaucoma, iris cysts, macular hole, shock, and visual hallucination.

Read the Salagen (pilocarpine hydrochloride) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Interactions

Pilocarpine should be administered with caution to patients taking beta-adrenergic antagonists because of the possibility of conduction disturbances. Drugs with parasympathomimetic effects administered concurrently with pilocarpine would be expected to result in additive pharmacologic effects. Pilocarpine might antagonize the anticholinergic effects of drugs used concomitantly. These effects should be considered when anticholinergic properties may be contributing to the therapeutic effect of concomitant medication (e.g., atropine, inhaled ipratropium).

While no formal drug interaction studies have been performed, the following concomitant drugs were used in at least 10% of patients in either or both Sjogren's efficacy studies: acetylsalicylic acid, artificial tears, calcium, conjugated estrogens, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, ibuprofen, levothyroxine sodium, medroxyprog-esterone acetate, methotrexate, multivitamins, naproxen, omeprazole, paracetamol, and prednisone.


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Warnings

Cardiovascular Disease

Patients with significant cardiovascular disease may be unable to compensate for transient changes in hemodynamics or rhythm induced by pilocarpine. Pulmonary edema has been reported as a complication of pilocarpine toxicity from high ocular doses given for acute angle-closure glaucoma. Pilocarpine should be administered with caution in and under close medical supervision of patients with significant cardiovascular disease.

Ocular

Ocular formulations of pilocarpine have been reported to cause visual blurring which may result in decreased visual acuity, especially at night and in patients with central lens changes, and to cause impairment of depth perception. Caution should be advised while driving at night or performing hazardous activities in reduced lighting.

Pulmonary Disease

Pilocarpine has been reported to increase airway resistance, bronchial smooth muscle tone, and bronchial secretions. Pilocarpine hydrochloride should be administered with caution to and under close medical supervision in patients with controlled asthma, chronic bronchitis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring pharmacotherapy.

 

Precautions

General

Pilocarpine toxicity is characterized by an exaggeration of its parasympathomimetic effects. These may include: headache, visual disturbance, lacrimation, sweating, respiratory distress, gastrointestinal spasm, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, atrioventricular block, tachycardia, bradycardia, hypotension, hypertension, shock, mental confusion, cardiac arrhythmia, and tremors.

The dose-related cardiovascular pharmacologic effects of pilocarpine include hypotension, hypertension, bradycardia, and tachycardia.

Pilocarpine should be administered with caution to patients with known or suspected cholelithiasis or biliary tract disease.

Contractions of the gallbladder or biliary smooth muscle could precipitate complications including cholecystitis, cholangitis, and biliary obstruction.

Pilocarpine may increase ureteral smooth muscle tone and could theoretically precipitate renal colic (or “ureteral reflux”), particularly in patients with nephrolithiasis.

Cholinergic agonists may have dose-related central nervous system effects. This should be considered when treating patients with underlying cognitive or psychiatric disturbances.

Hepatic Insufficiency: Based on decreased plasma clearance observed in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, the starting dose in these patients should be 5 mg twice daily, followed by adjustment based on therapeutic response and tolerability. Patients with mild hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh score of 5-6) do not require dosage reductions. To date, pharmacokinetic studies in subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score of 10-15) have not been carried out. The use of pilocarpine in these patients is not recommended.

Child-Pugh Scoring System for Hepatic Impairment

 

Clinical and Biochemical Measurements Points Scored for Increasing Abnormality
1 2 3
Encephalopathy (grade)* None 1 and 2 3 and 4
Ascites Absent Slight Moderate
Bilirubin (mg. per 100 ml.) 1-2 2-3 >3
Albumin (g. per 100 ml.) 3-5 2.8-3.5 <2.8
Prothrombin Time (sec. Prolonged) 1-4 4-6 >6
For Primary Biliary Cirrhosis:-Bilirubin (mg. per 100 ml.) 1-4 4-10 >10
* According to grading of Trey C, Burns D, and Saunders S. Treatment of hepatic coma by exchange blood transfusion. N Engl J Med. 1966; 274:473-481.

REFERENCES

Pugh RNH, Murray-Lyon IM, Dawson JL, Pietroni MC, Williams R. Transection of the oesophagus for bleeding oesophageal varices. Brit J Surg. 1973; 60:646-9.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Lifetime oral carcinogenicity studies were conducted in CD-1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Pilocarpine did not induce tumors in mice at any dosage studied (up to 30 mg/kg/day, which yielded a systemic exposure approximately 50 times larger than the maximum systemic exposure observed clinically). In rats, a dosage of 18 mg/kg/day, which yielded a systemic exposure approximately 100 times larger than the maximum systemic exposure observed clinically, resulted in a statistically significant increase in the incidence of benign pheochromocytomas in both males and females, and a statistically significant increase in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in female rats. The tumorigenicity observed in rats was observed only at a large multiple of the maximum labeled clinical dose, and may not be relevant to clinical use.

No evidence that pilocarpine has the potential to cause genetic toxicity was obtained in a series of studies that included: 1) bacterial assays (Salmonella and E. coli ) for reverse gene mutations; 2) an in vitro chromosome aberration assay in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line; 3) an in vivo chromosome aberration assay (micronucleus test) in mice; and 4) a primary DNA damage assay (unscheduled DNA synthesis) in rat hepatocyte primary cultures.

Oral administration of pilocarpine to male and female rats at a dosage of 18 mg/kg/day, which yielded a systemic exposure approximately 100 times larger than the maximum systemic exposure observed clinically, resulted in impaired reproductive function, including reduced fertility, decreased sperm motility, and morphologic evidence of abnormal sperm. It is unclear whether the reduction in fertility was due to effects on male animals, female animals, or both males and females. In dogs, exposure to pilocarpine at a dosage of 3 mg/kg/day (approximately 3 times the maximum recommended human dose when compared on the basis of body surface area (mg/m²) estimates) for six months resulted in evidence of impaired spermatogenesis. The data obtained in these studies suggest that pilocarpine may impair the fertility of male and female humans. SALAGEN® Tablets should be administered to individuals who are attempting to conceive a child only if the potential benefit justifies potential impairment of fertility.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category C: Pilocarpine was associated with a reduction in the mean fetal body weight and an increase in the incidence of skeletal variations when given to pregnant rats at a dosage of 90 mg/kg/day (approximately 26 times the maximum recommended dose for a 50 kg human when compared on the basis of body surface area (mg/m²) estimates). These effects may have been secondary to maternal toxicity. In another study, oral administration of pilocarpine to female rats during gestation and lactation at a dosage of 36 mg/kg/day (approximately 10 times the maximum recommended dose for a 50 kg human when compared on the basis of body surface area (mg/m²) estimates) resulted in an increased incidence of stillbirths; decreased neonatal survival and reduced mean body weight of pups were observed at dosages of 18 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the maximum recommended dose for a 50 kg human when compared on the basis of body surface area (mg/m²) estimates) and above. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. SALAGEN® Tablets should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from SALAGEN® Tablets, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Head & Neck Cancer Patients: In the placebo-controlled clinical trials (See Clinical Studies section) the mean age of patients was approximately 58 years (range 19 to 80). Of these patients, 97/369 (61/217 receiving pilocarpine) were over the age of 65 years. In the healthy volunteer studies, 15/150 subjects were over the age of 65 years. In both study populations, the adverse events reported by those over 65 years and those 65 years and younger were comparable. Of the 15 elderly volunteers (5 women, 10 men), the 5 women had higher Cmax's and AUC's than the men. (See Pharmacokinetics section.)

Sjogren's Syndrome Patients: In the placebo-controlled clinical trials (See Clinical Studies section), the mean age of patients was approximately 55 years (range 21 to 85). The adverse events reported by those over 65 years and those 65 years and younger were comparable except for notable trends for urinary frequency, diarrhea, and dizziness (See ADVERSE REACTIONS section).


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

OverDose

Management Of Overdose

Fatal overdosage with pilocarpine has been reported in the scientific literature at doses presumed to be greater than 100 mg in two hospitalized patients. 100 mg of pilocarpine is considered potentially fatal. Overdosage should be treated with atropine titration (0.5 mg to 1.0 mg given subcutaneously or intravenously) and supportive measures to maintain respiration and circulation. Epinephrine (0.3 mg to 1.0 mg, subcutaneously or intramuscularly) may also be of value in the presence of severe cardiovascular depression or bronchoconstriction. It is not known if pilocarpine is dialyzable.

ContrainDications

SALAGEN® Tablets are contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled asthma, known hypersensitivity to pilocarpine, and when miosis is undesirable, e.g., in acute iritis and in narrow-angle (angle closure) glaucoma.


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Clinical Pharamacology

Pharmacodynamics

Pilocarpine is a cholinergic parasympathomimetic agent exerting a broad spectrum of pharmacologic effects with predominant muscarinic action. Pilocarpine, in appropriate dosage, can increase secretion by the exocrine glands. The sweat, salivary, lacrimal, gastric, pancreatic, and intestinal glands and the mucous cells of the respiratory tract may be stimulated. When applied topically to the eye as a single dose it causes miosis, spasm of accommodation, and may cause a transitory rise in intraocular pressure followed by a more persistent fall. Dose-related smooth muscle stimulation of the intestinal tract may cause increased tone, increased motility, spasm, and tenesmus. Bronchial smooth muscle tone may increase. The tone and motility of urinary tract, gallbladder, and biliary duct smooth muscle may be enhanced. Pilocarpine may have paradoxical effects on the cardiovascular system. The expected effect of a muscarinic agonist is vasodepression, but administration of pilocarpine may produce hypertension after a brief episode of hypotension. Bradycardia and tachycardia have both been reported with use of pilocarpine.

In a study of 12 healthy male volunteers there was a dose-related increase in unstimulated salivary flow following single 5 and 10 mg oral doses of SALAGEN® Tablets. This effect of pilocarpine on salivary flow was time-related with an onset at 20 minutes and a peak effect at 1 hour with a duration of 3 to 5 hours (See Pharmacokinetics section).

Head & Neck Cancer Patients: In a 12 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 207 patients (placebo, N=65; 5 mg, N=73; 10 mg, N=69), increases from baseline (means 0.072 and 0.112 mL/min, ranges -0.690 to 0.728 and -0.380 to 1.689) of whole saliva flow for the 5 mg (63%) and 10 mg (90%) tablet, respectively, were seen 1 hour after the first dose of SALAGEN® Tablets. Increases in unstimulated parotid flow were seen following the first dose (means 0.025 and 0.046 mL/min, ranges 0 to 0.414 and -0.070 to 1.002 mL/min for the 5 and 10 mg dose, respectively). In this study, no correlation existed between the amount of increase in salivary flow and the degree of symptomatic relief.

Sjogren's Syndrome Patients: In two 12 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 629 patients (placebo, N=253; 2.5 mg, N=121; 5 mg, N=255; 5-7.5 mg, N=114), the ability of SALAGEN® Tablets to stimulate saliva production was assessed. In these trials using varying doses of SALAGEN® Tablets (2.5-7.5 mg), the rate of saliva production was plotted against time. An Area Under the Curve (AUC) representing the total amount of saliva produced during the observation interval was calculated. Relative to placebo, an increase in the amount of saliva being produced was observed following the first dose of SALAGEN® Tablets and was maintained throughout the duration (12 weeks) of the trials in an approximate dose response fashion (See Clinical Studies section).

Pharmacokinetics

In a multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study in male volunteers following 2 days of 5 or 10 mg of oral pilocarpine hydrochloride tablets given at 8 a.m., noontime, and 6 p.m., the mean elimination half-life was 0.76 hours for the 5 mg dose and 1.35 hours for the 10 mg dose. Tmax values were 1.25 hours and 0.85 hours. Cmax values were 15 ng/mL and 41 ng/mL. The AUC trapezoidal values were 33 h(ng/mL) and 108 h(ng/mL), respectively, for the 5 and 10 mg doses following the last 6 hour dose. Pharmacokinetics in elderly male volunteers (N=11) were comparable to those in younger men. In five healthy elderly female volunteers, the mean Cmax and AUC were approximately twice that of elderly males and young normal male volunteers. When taken with a high fat meal by 12 healthy male volunteers, there was a decrease in the rate of absorption of pilocarpine from SALAGEN® Tablets. Mean Tmax's were 1.47 and 0.87 hours, and mean Cmax's were 51.8 and 59.2 ng/mL for fed and fasted, respectively.

Limited information is available about the metabolism and elimination of pilocarpine in humans. Inactivation of pilocarpine is thought to occur at neuronal synapses and probably in plasma. Pilocarpine and its minimally active or inactive degradation products, including pilocarpic acid, are excreted in the urine. Pilocarpine does not bind to human or rat plasma proteins over a concentration range of 5 to 25,000 ng/mL. The effect of pilocarpine on plasma protein binding of other drugs has not been evaluated. In patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (N=12), administration of a single 5 mg dose resulted in a 30% decrease in total plasma clearance and a doubling of exposure (as measured by AUC). Peak plasma levels were also increased by about 30% and halflife was increased to 2.1 hrs.

There were no significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of oral pilocarpine in volunteer subjects (N=8) with renal insufficiency (mean creatinine clearances 25.4 mL/min; range 9.8 - 40.8 mL/min) compared to the pharmacokinetics previously observed in normal volunteers.

Clinical Studies

Head & Neck Cancer Patients

A 12 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 207 patients (142 men, 65 women) was conducted in patients whose mean age was 58.5 years with a range of 19 to 77; the racial distribution was Caucasian 95%, Black 4%, and other 1%. In this population, a statistically significant improvement in mouth dryness occurred in the 5 and 10 mg SALAGEN® Tablet treated patients compared to placebo treated patients. The 5 and 10 mg treated patients could not be distinguished. (See Pharmacodynamics section for flow study details.)

Another 12 week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 162 patients whose mean age was 57.8 years with a range of 27 to 80; the racial distribution was Caucasian 88%, Black 10%, and other 2%. The effects of placebo were compared to 2.5 mg three times a day of SALAGEN® Tablets for 4 weeks followed by adjustment to 5 mg three times a day and 10 mg three times a day. Lowering of the dose was necessary because of adverse events in 3 of 67 patients treated with 5 mg of SALAGEN® Tablets and in 7 of 66 patients treated with 10 mg of SALAGEN® Tablets. After 4 weeks of treatment, 2.5 mg of SALAGEN® Tablets three times a day was comparable to placebo in relieving dryness. In patients treated with 5 mg and 10 mg of SALAGEN® Tablets, the greatest improvement in dryness was noted in patients with no measurable salivary flow at baseline.

In both studies, some patients noted improvement in the global assessment of their dry mouth, speaking without liquids, and a reduced need for supplemental oral comfort agents.

In the two placebo-controlled clinical trials, the most common adverse events related to drug, and increasing in rate as dose increases, were sweating, nausea, rhinitis, diarrhea, chills, flushing, urinary frequency, dizziness, and asthenia. The most common adverse experience causing withdrawal from treatment was sweating (5 mg t.i.d. ≤1%; 10 mg t.i.d. =12%).

Sjogren's Syndrome Patients

Two separate studies were conducted in patients with primary or secondary Sjogren's Syndrome. In both studies, the majority of patients best fit the European criteria for having primary Sjogren's Syndrome. [“Criteria for the Classification of Sjogren's Syndrome” (Vitali C, Bombardieri S, Moutsopoulos HM, et al: Preliminary criteria for the classification of Sjogren's Syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 1993; 36:340-347.)]

A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 256 patients (14 men, 242 women) whose mean age was 57 years with a range of 24 to 85 years. The racial distribution was as follows: Caucasian 91%, Black 6%, and other 3%.

The effects of placebo were compared with those of SALAGEN® Tablets 5 mg four times a day (20 mg/day) for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the patients' dosage was increased from 5 mg SALAGEN® Tablets q.i.d. to 7.5 mg q.i.d. The data collected during the first 6 weeks of the trial were evaluated for safety and efficacy, and the data of the second 6 weeks of the trial were used to provide additional evidence of safety.

After 6 weeks of treatment, statistically significant global improvement of dry mouth was observed compared to placebo. “Global improvement” is defined as a score of 55 mm or more on a 100 mm visual analogue scale in response to the question, “Please rate your present condition of dry mouth (xerostomia) compared with your condition at the start of this study. Consider the changes to your dry mouth and other symptoms related to your dry mouth that have occurred since you have taken this medication.” Patients' assessments of specific dry mouth symptoms such as severity of dry mouth, mouth discomfort, ability to speak without water, ability to sleep without drinking water, ability to swallow food without drinking, and a decreased use of saliva substitutes were found to be consistent with the significant global improvement described.

Another 12 week randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 373 patients (16 men, 357 women) whose mean age was 55 years with a range of 21 to 84. The racial distribution was Caucasian 80%, Oriental 14%, Black 2%, and 4% of other origin. The treatment groups were 2.5 mg pilocarpine tablets, 5 mg SALAGEN® Tablets, and placebo. All treatments were administered on a four times a day regimen.

After 12 weeks of treatment, statistically significant global improvement of dry mouth was observed at a dose of 5 mg compared with placebo. The 2.5 mg (10 mg/day) group was not significantly different than placebo. However, a subgroup of patients with rheumatoid arthritis tended to improve in global assessments at both the 2.5 mg q.i.d. (9 patients) and 5 mg q.i.d. (16 patients) dose (10-20 mg/day). The clinical significance of this finding is unknown.

Patients' assessments of specific dry mouth symptoms such as severity of dry mouth, mouth discomfort, ability to sleep without drinking water, and decreased use of saliva substitutes were also found to be consistent with the significant global improvement described when measured after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of SALAGEN® Tablets use.


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Patient Information

Patients should be informed that pilocarpine may cause visual disturbances, especially at night, that could impair their ability to drive safely.

If a patient sweats excessively while taking pilocarpine hydrochloride and cannot drink enough liquid, the patient should consult a physician. Dehydration may develop.


This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Consumer Overview Uses

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

 

PILOCARPINE - ORAL

 

(PYE-loe-KAR-peen)

 

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Salagen

 

USES: This medication is used to treat symptoms of dry mouth due to a certain immune disease (Sjogren's syndrome) or from saliva gland damage due to radiation treatments of the head/neck for cancer. Pilocarpine belongs to a class of drugs known as cholinergic agonists. It works by stimulating certain nerves to increase the amount of saliva you produce, making it easier and more comfortable to speak and swallow.

 

HOW TO USE: Take this medication by mouth with or without food, usually 3-4 times daily, or as directed by your doctor.

To reduce your risk of side effects, your doctor may direct you to start this medication at a low dose and gradually increase your dose. Follow your doctor's instructions carefully.

Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. If you have liver problems, your doctor may direct you to start taking this drug only twice daily. The usual maximum adult dose is 30 milligrams each day.

Take this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same times each day.

You may continue to drink water or use saliva substitutes as needed for moisture in your mouth.

You may start to feel some benefit in 1 to 2 weeks. However, it may take up to 3 months to feel the full benefit. Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.

Consumer Overview Side Effect

SIDE EFFECTS: See also Precautions.

Sweating, nausea, runny nose, chills, flushing, frequent urge to urinate, dizziness, weakness, diarrhea, and blurred vision may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

This medication may cause an increase in tears. This can be helpful if you have dry eyes (such as with Sjogren's syndrome). Tell your doctor if runny eyes become a problem.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: slow/fast heartbeat, shakiness (tremor), fainting, lung problems (such as increased wheezing/cough/phlegm), mental/mood changes (such as confusion, agitation), severe stomach/abdominal pain.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

 

Read the Salagen (pilocarpine hydrochloride) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

PRECAUTIONS: Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: breathing problems (such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-COPD), certain eye conditions (such as night blindness, acute iritis, narrow-angle glaucoma), heart disease (such as chest pain, heart failure, heart attack, slow heartbeat), low or high blood pressure, liver problems, gallbladder disease (such as gallstones), kidney stones, mental/mood disorders (such as depression, psychoses, thinking/understanding problems like dementia, Alzheimer's), stomach problems (such as chronic heartburn, ulcer).

Pilocarpine may make you dizzy and cause vision problems, especially at night. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness or clear vision, especially at night, until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Limit alcoholic beverages.

If pilocarpine makes you sweat heavily, drink plenty of fluids so that you do not become dehydrated. If you are unable to drink enough fluids, talk with your doctor immediately.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

Caution is advised when using this drug in the elderly because they may be more sensitive to its effects, especially dizziness, diarrhea, and increased urge to urinate.

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is not known whether this drug passes into breast milk. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor before breast-feeding.

 

 

Consumer Overview Missed Dose

DRUG INTERACTIONS: The effects of some drugs can change if you take other drugs or herbal products at the same time. This can increase your risk for serious side effects or may cause your medications not to work correctly. These drug interactions are possible, but do not always occur. Your doctor or pharmacist can often prevent or manage interactions by changing how you use your medications or by close monitoring.

To help your doctor and pharmacist give you the best care, be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products) before starting treatment with this product. While using this product, do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any other medicines you are using without your doctor's approval.

Some products that may interact with this drug include: beta blockers (such as propranolol, metoprolol).

Pilocarpine may cause drugs with "drying" effects (some antihistamines, anticholinergics such as certain drugs for asthma, over-active bladder, and Parkinson's) to work less well. Examples of affected drugs include chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, atropine, belladonna alkaloids, benztropine, ipratropium, and tolterodine. These medications can also worsen dry mouth, causing pilocarpine to work less well. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Check the labels on all your medicines (such as cough-and-cold products) because they may contain ingredients that could have a drying effect. Ask your pharmacist for more details.

This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use. Share this list with your doctor and pharmacist to lessen your risk for serious medication problems.

 

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: heavy sweating, severe trouble breathing, severe wheezing, stomach cramps, vomiting, uncontrolled diarrhea, very slow/fast heartbeat, severe confusion.

 

NOTES: Do not share this medication with others.

Keep all regular medical and laboratory appointments so that your doctor can monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

 

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

 

STORAGE: Store at room temperature between 68-77 degrees F (20-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

 

Information last revised March 2013. Copyright(c) 2013 First Databank, Inc.

 

Patient Detailed Side Effect

Brand Names: Salagen

Generic Name: pilocarpine (Pronunciation: pie low CAR peen)

  • What is pilocarpine (Salagen)?
  • What are the possible side effects of pilocarpine (Salagen)?
  • What is the most important information I should know about pilocarpine (Salagen)?
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking pilocarpine (Salagen)?
  • How should I take pilocarpine (Salagen)?
  • What happens if I miss a dose (Salagen)?
  • What happens if I overdose (Salagen)?
  • What should I avoid while taking pilocarpine (Salagen)?
  • What other drugs will affect pilocarpine (Salagen)?
  • Where can I get more information?

What is pilocarpine (Salagen)?

Pilocarpine is an agent that affects the nervous system. Pilocarpine increases saliva secretion in the mouth.

Pilocarpine is used in the treatment of dry mouth.

Pilocarpine may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.

Salagen

round, white, imprinted with MGI, 705

What are the possible side effects of pilocarpine (Salagen)?

Stop taking pilocarpine and seek emergency medical attention if you experience any of the following uncommon but serious side effects:

  • an allergic reaction (difficulty breathing; closing of the throat; swelling of the lips, tongue, or face; or hives);
  • difficulty breathing;
  • irregular heartbeats;
  • eye pain; or
  • confusion or changes in mental status or behavior.

Other, less serious side effects may also occur. Continue to take pilocarpine and talk to your doctor if you experience

  • changes in vision;
  • increased sweating;
  • dizziness;
  • headache;
  • runny nose;
  • nausea;
  • redness of the face and neck;
  • chills; or
  • an increased urge to urinate.

Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Salagen (pilocarpine hydrochloride) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

What is the most important information I should know about pilocarpine (Salagen)?

Pilocarpine may cause changes in vision, especially at night. Use caution when driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous activities. If you experience changes in vision, avoid these activities.

Dehydration may be more likely to occur during treatment with pilocarpine, due to increased sweating. Use caution when exercising and when exposed to hot weather. Drink plenty of fluid to maintain adequate hydration.

Side Effects Centers
  • Salagen

Patient Detailed How Take

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking pilocarpine (Salagen)?

Before taking pilocarpine, talk to your doctor if you have:

  • glaucoma or other eye problems
  • asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or other breathing or lung problems;
  • heart problems;
  • gallbladder problems;
  • mental problems;
  • stomach problems;
  • abnormal blood pressure or blood vessel problems;
  • kidney problems; or
  • liver problems.

You may not be able to take pilocarpine or you may require a dosage adjustment or special monitoring during treatment if you have any of the conditions listed above.

Pilocarpine is in the FDA pregnancy category C. This means that it is not known whether pilocarpine will be harmful to an unborn baby. Do not take pilocarpine without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant or could become pregnant during treatment.

It is not known whether pilocarpine passes into breast milk. Do not take pilocarpine without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I take pilocarpine (Salagen)?

Take pilocarpine exactly as directed by your doctor. If you do not understand these directions, ask your pharmacist, nurse, or doctor to explain them to you.

Take each dose with a full glass of water.

Pilocarpine can be taken with or without food.

It is important to take pilocarpine regularly to get the most benefit.

Store pilocarpine at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Side Effects Centers
  • Salagen

Patient Detailed Avoid Taking

What happens if I miss a dose (Salagen)?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for the next regularly scheduled dose, skip the missed dose and take the next one as directed. Do not take a double dose of pilocarpine unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

What happens if I overdose (Salagen)?

Seek emergency medical attention if an overdose is suspected.

Symptoms of a pilocarpine overdose may include headache, hallucinations, visual disturbances, sweating, chest pain, abnormal heart rate, abnormal blood pressure, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, tremors, or confusion.

What should I avoid while taking pilocarpine (Salagen)?

Pilocarpine may cause changes in vision, especially at night. Use caution when driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous activities. If you experience changes in vision, avoid these activities.

Dehydration may be more likely to occur during treatment with pilocarpine, due to increased sweating. Use caution when exercising and when exposed to hot weather. Drink plenty of fluid to maintain adequate hydration.

What other drugs will affect pilocarpine (Salagen)?

Before taking pilocarpine, tell your doctor if you are taking any of the following medicines:

  • a heart or blood pressure medication;
  • a seizure medication;
  • a medication for Parkinson's disease or other medications for muscle control;
  • an antihistamine or allergy medications;
  • a medication for motion sickness;
  • an antidepressant or antipsychotic medication; or
  • a medication for stomach problems.

You may not be able to take pilocarpine, or you may require a dosage adjustment or special monitoring during your treatment if you are taking any of the medicines listed above.

Drugs other than those listed here also interact with pilocarpine. Talk to your doctor and pharmacist before taking any prescription or over-the-counter medicines, including vitamins, minerals, and herbal products.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist has more information about pilocarpine written for health professionals that you may read.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2013 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 1.03. Revision date: 12/15/2010.

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