Drugs Details

Drugs Info of Bactrim
Drugs Details
  • Drugs Type  : FDA
  • Date : 26th Dec 2014 04:47 am
  • Brand Name : Bactrim
  • Generic Name : sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (Pronunciation: SUL fa meth OX a zole and trye METH oh prim)
Descriptions

BACTRIM (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) is a synthetic antibacterial combination product available in DS (double strength) tablets, each containing 800 mg sulfamethoxazole and 160 mg trimethoprim; in tablets, each containing 400 mg sulfamethoxazole and 80 mg trimethoprim for oral administration.

Sulfamethoxazole is N1-(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)sulfanilamide; the molecular formula is C10H11N3O3S. It is an almost white, odorless, tasteless compound with a molecular weight of 253.28 and the following structural formula:

 

Sulfamethoxazole Structural Formula Illustration

Trimethoprim is 2,4-diamino-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl) pyrimidine; the molecular formula is C14H18N4O3. It is a white to light yellow, odorless, bitter compound with a molecular weight of 290.3 and the following structural formula:

 

Trimethoprim Structural Formula Illustration

Inactive ingredients: Docusate sodium 85%, sodium benzoate 15%, sodium starch glycolate, magnesium stearate and pregelatinized starch.

What are the possible side effects of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
  • fever, chills, swollen glands, body aches, flu symptoms, sores in your mouth and throat;
  • new or worsening cough;
  • pale skin, feeling light-headed, rapid heart rate, trouble concentrating;
  • easy bruising, unusual bleeding (nose, mouth, vagina, or rectum), purple or red...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Bactrim »

What are the precautions when taking trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim)?

Before taking sulfamethoxazole with trimethoprim, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to sulfa medications or trimethoprim; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney disease, liver disease, certain blood disorders (such as porphyria, anemia due to folate vitamin deficiency), history of blood disorders caused by trimethoprim or sulfa medications, vitamin deficiency (folate or folic acid), severe allergies, asthma, decreased bone marrow function (bone marrow suppression), a certain metabolic disorder (G6PD deficiency),...

Read All Potential Precautions of Bactrim »

Indications

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Bactrim (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) tablets and other antibacterial drugs, Bactrim (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to empiric selection of therapy.

Urinary Tract Infections: For the treatment of urinary tract infections due to susceptible strains of the following organisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Enterobacter species, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris. It is recommended that initial episodes of uncomplicated urinary tract infections be treated with a single effective antibacterial agent rather than the combination.

Acute Otitis Media: For the treatment of acute otitis media in pediatric patients due to susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae when in the judgment of the physician sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim offers some advantage over the use of other antimicrobial agents. To date, there are limited data on the safety of repeated use of BACTRIM in pediatric patients under two years of age. BACTRIM is not indicated for prophylactic or prolonged administration in otitis media at any age.

Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Adults: For the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae when a physician deems that BACTRIM could offer some advantage over the use of a single antimicrobial agent.

Shigellosis: For the treatment of enteritis caused by susceptible strains of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei when antibacterial therapy is indicated.

Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia: For the treatment of documented Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and for prophylaxis against P. jiroveci pneumonia in individuals who are immunosuppressed and considered to be at an increased risk of developing P. jiroveci pneumonia.

Traveler's Diarrhea in Adults: For the treatment of traveler's diarrhea due to susceptible strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli.

Dosage Administration

BACTRIM is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age.

Urinary Tract Infections and Shigellosis in Adults and Pediatric Patients, and Acute Otitis Media in Children

Adults: The usual adult dosage in the treatment of urinary tract infections is 1 BACTRIM DS (double strength) tablet or 2 BACTRIM tablets every 12 hours for 10 to 14 days. An identical daily dosage is used for 5 days in the treatment of shigellosis.

Children: The recommended dose for children with urinary tract infections or acute otitis media is 40 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole and 8 mg/kg trimethoprim per 24 hours, given in two divided doses every 12 hours for 10 days. An identical daily dosage is used for 5 days in the treatment of shigellosis. The following table is a guideline for the attainment of this dosage:

Children 2 months of age or older

Weight Dose - every 12 hours
lb kg Tablets
22 10
44 20 1
66 30
88 40 2 or 1 DS tablet

For Patients with Impaired Renal Function: When renal function is impaired, a reduced dosage should be employed using the following table: Creatinine Recommended Clearance (mL/min) Dosage Regimen

 

Creatinine Clearance (mL/min) Recommended Dosage Regimen
Above 30 Usual standard regimen
15–30 ½ the usual regimen
Below 15 Use not recommended

Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Adults

The usual adult dosage in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis is 1 BACTRIM DS (double strength) tablet or 2 BACTRIM tablets every 12 hours for 14 days.

Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia

Treatment: Adults and Children: The recommended dosage for treatment of patients with documented Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is 75 to 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole and 15 to 20 mg/kg trimethoprim per 24 hours given in equally divided doses every 6 hours for 14 to 21 days.11 The following table is a guideline for the upper limit of this dosage:

 

Weight Dose - every 6 hours
lb kg Tablets
18 8
35 16 1
53 24
70 32 2 or 1 DS tablet
88 40
106 48 3 or 1½ DS tablets
141 64 4 or 2 DS tablets
176 80 5 or 2½ DS tablets

For the lower limit dose (75 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole and 15 mg/kg trimethoprim per 24 hours) administer 75% of the dose in the above table.

Prophylaxis

Adults

The recommended dosage for prophylaxis in adults is 1 BACTRIM DS (double strength) tablet daily.12

Children

For children, the recommended dose is 750 mg/m²/day sulfamethoxazole with 150 mg/m²/day trimethoprim given orally in equally divided doses twice a day, on 3 consecutive days per week. The total daily dose should not exceed 1600 mg sulfamethoxazole and 320 mg trimethoprim.13 The following table is a guideline for the attainment of this dosage in children:

 

Body Surface Area (m²) Dose - every 12 hours Tablets
0.26 -
0.53 ½
1.06 1

Traveler's Diarrhea in Adults

For the treatment of traveler's diarrhea, the usual adult dosage is 1 BACTRIM DS (double strength) tablet or 2 BACTRIM tablets every 12 hours for 5 days.

How Supplied

BACTRIM™ TABLETS are supplied as follows:

BACTRIM™ DS (double strength) TABLETS (white, oval shaped, scored) containing 160 mg trimethoprim and 800 mg sulfamethoxazole – bottles of 100 (NDC 13310-146-01) and 500 (NDC 13310-146-05). Imprint on tablets (debossed): (front) BACTRIM DS

BACTRIM™ TABLETS (white, round, scored) containing 80 mg trimethoprim and 400 mg sulfamethoxazole – bottles of 100 (NDC 13310-145-01) and 500 (NDC 13310-145-05). Imprint on tablets (debossed): (front) BACTRIM

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]

DISPENSE IN TIGHT, LIGHT-RESISTANT CONTAINER.

REFERENCES

5. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard – 9th ed. CLSI document M07– A9, CLSI, Wayne, PA, 2012.

11. Masur H. Prevention and treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1992; 327: 1853–1880.

12. Recommendations for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia for adults and adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus. MMWR. 1992; 41(RR–4):1–11.

13. CDC Guidelines for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia for children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. MMWR. 1991; 40(RR–2):1–13.

Manufactured for: AR Scientific, Inc. Philadelphia, PA 19124 USA by: Mutual Pharmaceutical Company, Inc. Philadelphia, PA 19124 USA. Rev 13, June 2013

Side Effects

The most common adverse effects are gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, vomiting, anorexia) and allergic skin reactions (such as rash and urticaria). FATALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF SULFONAMIDES, ALTHOUGH RARE, HAVE OCCURRED DUE TO SEVERE REACTIONS, INCLUDING STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME, TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS, FULMINANT HEPATIC NECROSIS, AGRANULOCYTOSIS, APLASTIC ANEMIA AND OTHER BLOOD DYSCRASIAS (SEE WARNINGS SECTION).

Hematologic: Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, hemolytic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, hypoprothrombinemia, methemoglobinemia, eosinophilia.

Allergic Reactions: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, anaphylaxis, allergic myocarditis, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, angioedema, drug fever, chills, Henoch-Schoenlein purpura, serum sickness-like syndrome, generalized allergic reactions, generalized skin eruptions, photosensitivity, conjunctival and scleral injection, pruritus, urticaria and rash. In addition, periarteritis nodosa and systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported.

Gastrointestinal: Hepatitis (including cholestatic jaundice and hepatic necrosis), elevation of serum transaminase and bilirubin, pseudomembranous enterocolitis, pancreatitis, stomatitis, glossitis, nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anorexia.

Genitourinary: Renal failure, interstitial nephritis, BUN and serum creatinine elevation, toxic nephrosis with oliguria and anuria, crystalluria and nephrotoxicity in association with cyclosporine.

Metabolic and Nutritional: Hyperkalemia, hyponatremia (see PRECAUTIONS: Electrolyte Abnormalities).

Neurologic: Aseptic meningitis, convulsions, peripheral neuritis, ataxia, vertigo, tinnitus, headache.

Psychiatric: Hallucinations, depression, apathy, nervousness.

Endocrine: The sulfonamides bear certain chemical similarities to some goitrogens, diuretics (acetazolamide and the thiazides) and oral hypoglycemic agents. Cross-sensitivity may exist with these agents. Diuresis and hypoglycemia have occurred rarely in patients receiving sulfonamides.

Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia and myalgia. Isolated cases of rhabdomyolysis have been reported with BACTRIM, mainly in AIDS patients.

Respiratory: Cough, shortness of breath and pulmonary infiltrates (see WARNINGS).

Miscellaneous: Weakness, fatigue, insomnia.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. Because these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:

  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura
  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • QT prolongation resulting in ventricular tachycardia and torsade de pointes

Read the Bactrim (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Interactions

Potential for BACTRIM to Affect Other Drugs

Trimethoprim is an inhibitor of CYP2C8 as well as OCT2 transporter. Sulfamethoxazole is an inhibitor of CYP2C9. Caution is recommended when Bactrim is co-administered with drugs that are substrates of CYP2C8 and 2C9 or OCT2.

In elderly patients concurrently receiving certain diuretics, primarily thiazides, an increased incidence of thrombocytopenia with purpura has been reported.

It has been reported that BACTRIM may prolong the prothrombin time in patients who are receiving the anticoagulant warfarin (a CYP2C9 substrate). This interaction should be kept in mind when BACTRIM is given to patients already on anticoagulant therapy, and the coagulation time should be reassessed.

BACTRIM may inhibit the hepatic metabolism of phenytoin (a CYP2C9 substrate). BACTRIM, given at a common clinical dosage, increased the phenytoin half-life by 39% and decreased the phenytoin metabolic clearance rate by 27%. When administering these drugs concurrently, one should be alert for possible excessive phenytoin effect.

Sulfonamides can also displace methotrexate from plasma protein binding sites and can compete with the renal transport of methotrexate, thus increasing free methotrexate concentrations.

There have been reports of marked but reversible nephrotoxicity with coadministration of BACTRIM and cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients.

Increased digoxin blood levels can occur with concomitant BACTRIM therapy, especially in elderly patients. Serum digoxin levels should be monitored.

Increased sulfamethoxazole blood levels may occur in patients who are also receiving indomethacin.

Occasional reports suggest that patients receiving pyrimethamine as malaria prophylaxis in doses exceeding 25 mg weekly may develop megaloblastic anemia if BACTRIM is prescribed.

The efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants can decrease when coadministered with BACTRIM.

BACTRIM potentiates the effect of oral hypoglycemics that are metabolized by CYP2C8 (e.g., pioglitazone, repaglinide, and rosiglitazone) or CYP2C9 (e.g., glipizide and glyburide) or eliminated renally via OCT2 (e.g., metformin). Additional monitoring of blood glucose may be warranted.

In the literature, a single case of toxic delirium has been reported after concomitant intake of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and amantadine (an OCT2 substrate). Cases of interactions with other OCT2 substrates, memantine and metformin, have also been reported.

In the literature, three cases of hyperkalemia in elderly patients have been reported after concomitant intake of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor.8,9

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

BACTRIM, specifically the trimethoprim component, can interfere with a serum methotrexate assay as determined by the competitive binding protein technique (CBPA) when a bacterial dihydrofolate reductase is used as the binding protein. No interference occurs, however, if methotrexate is measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA).

The presence of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may also interfere with the Jaffé alkaline picrate reaction assay for creatinine, resulting in overestimations of about 10% in the range of normal values.

Read the Bactrim Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

Warnings

Embryofetal Toxicity

Some epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly neural tube defects, cardiovascular malformations, urinary tract defects, oral clefts, and club foot. If sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be advised of the potential hazards to the fetus.

Hypersensitivity and Other Fatal Reactions

Fatalities associated with the administration of sulfonamides, although rare, have occurred due to severe reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia and other blood dyscrasias.

Sulfonamides, including sulfonamide-containing products such as sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any sign of adverse reaction. In rare instances, a skin rash may be followed by a more severe reaction, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, hepatic necrosis, and serious blood disorders (see PRECAUTIONS). Clinical signs, such as rash, sore throat, fever, arthralgia, pallor, purpura or jaundice may be early indications of serious reactions.

Cough, shortness of breath, and pulmonary infiltrates are hypersensitivity reactions of the respiratory tract that have been reported in association with sulfonamide treatment.

Thrombocytopenia

Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim-induced thrombocytopenia may be an immune-mediated disorder. Severe cases of thrombocytopenia that are fatal or life threatening have been reported. Thrombocytopenia usually resolves within a week upon discontinuation of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.

Streptococcal Infections and Rheumatic Fever

The sulfonamides should not be used for treatment of group A β-hemolytic streptococcal infections. In an established infection, they will not eradicate the streptococcus and, therefore, will not prevent sequelae such as rheumatic fever.

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including BACTRIM, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Adjunctive treatment with Leucovorin for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

Treatment failure and excess mortality were observed when trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was used concomitantly with leucovorin for the treatment of HIV positive patients with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in a randomized placebo controlled trial.6 Co-administration of trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole and leucovorin during treatment of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia should be avoided.

REFERENCES

6. Safrin S, Lee BL, Sande MA. Adjunctive folinic acid with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients is associated with an increased risk of therapeutic failure and death. J Infect Dis. 1994 Oct;170(4):912–7.

Precautions

Development of drug resistant bacteria

Prescribing Bactrim (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Folate deficiency

BACTRIM should be given with caution to patients with impaired renal or hepatic function, to those with possible folate deficiency (e.g., the elderly, chronic alcoholics, patients receiving anticonvulsant therapy, patients with malabsorption syndrome, and patients in malnutrition states) and to those with severe allergies or bronchial asthma.

Hematological changes indicative of folic acid deficiency may occur in elderly patients or in patients with preexisting folic acid deficiency or kidney failure. These effects are reversible by folinic acid therapy.

Hemolysis

In glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient individuals, hemolysis may occur. This reaction is frequently dose-related (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Hypoglycemia

Cases of hypoglycemia in non-diabetic patients treated with BACTRIM are seen rarely, usually occurring after a few days of therapy. Patients with renal dysfunction, liver disease, malnutrition or those receiving high doses of BACTRIM are particularly at risk.

Phenylalanine metabolism

Trimethoprim has been noted to impair phenylalanine metabolism, but this is of no significance in phenylketonuric patients on appropriate dietary restriction.

Porphyria and Hypothyroidism

As with all drugs containing sulfonamides, caution is advisable in patients with porphyria or thyroid dysfunction.

Use in the Treatment of and Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS): AIDS patients may not tolerate or respond to BACTRIM in the same manner as non-AIDS patients. The incidence of side effects, particularly rash, fever, leukopenia and elevated aminotransferase (transaminase) values, with BACTRIM therapy in AIDS patients who are being treated for P. jiroveci pneumonia has been reported to be greatly increased compared with the incidence normally associated with the use of BACTRIM in non-AIDS patients. Adverse effects are generally less severe in patients receiving BACTRIM for prophylaxis. A history of mild intolerance to BACTRIM in AIDS patients does not appear to predict intolerance of subsequent secondary prophylaxis.7 However, if a patient develops skin rash or any sign of adverse reaction, therapy with BACTRIM should be reevaluated (see WARNINGS).

Co-administration of BACTRIM and leucovorin should be avoided with P. jiroveci pneumonia (see WARNINGS).

Electrolyte Abnormalities

High dosage of trimethoprim, as used in patients with P. jiroveci pneumonia, induces a progressive but reversible increase of serum potassium concentrations in a substantial number of patients. Even treatment with recommended doses may cause hyperkalemia when trimethoprim is administered to patients with underlying disorders of potassium metabolism, with renal insufficiency, or if drugs known to induce hyperkalemia are given concomitantly. Close monitoring of serum potassium is warranted in these patients.

Severe and symptomatic hyponatremia can occur in patients receiving BACTRIM, particularly for the treatment of P. jiroveci pneumonia. Evaluation for hyponatremia and appropriate correction is necessary in symptomatic patients to prevent life-threatening complications.

During treatment, adequate fluid intake and urinary output should be ensured to prevent crystalluria. Patients who are “slow acetylators” may be more prone to idiosyncratic reactions to sulfonamides.

Laboratory Tests

Complete blood counts should be done frequently in patients receiving BACTRIM; if a significant reduction in the count of any formed blood element is noted, BACTRIM should be discontinued. Urinalyses with careful microscopic examination and renal function tests should be performed during therapy, particularly for those patients with impaired renal function.

REFERENCES

7. Hardy DW, et al. A controlled trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or aerosolized pentamidine for secondary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1992; 327: 1842–1848.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Sulfamethoxazole was not carcinogenic when assessed in a 26-week tumorigenic mouse (Tg-rasH2) study at doses up to 400 mg/kg/day sulfamethoxazole; equivalent to 2.4-fold the human systemic exposure (at a daily dose of 800 mg sulfamethoxazole b.i.d.).

Mutagenesis

In vitro reverse mutation bacterial tests according to the standard protocol have not been performed with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in combination. An in vitro chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was negative. In in vitro and in vivo tests in animal species, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim did not damage chromosomes. In vivo micronucleus assays were positive following oral administration of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Observations of leukocytes obtained from patients treated with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim revealed no chromosomal abnormalities.

Sulfamethoxazole alone was positive in an in vitro reverse mutation bacterial assay and in in vitro micronucleus assays using cultured human lymphocytes.

Trimethoprim alone was negative in in vitro reverse mutation bacterial assays and in in vitro chromosomal aberration assays with Chinese Hamster ovary or lung cells with or without S9 activation. In in vitro Comet, micronucleus and chromosomal damage assays using cultured human lymphocytes, trimethoprim was positive. In mice following oral administration of trimethoprim, no DNA damage in Comet assays of liver, kidney, lung, spleen, or bone marrow was recorded.

Impairment of Fertility

No adverse effects on fertility or general reproductive performance were observed in rats given oral dosages as high as 350 mg/kg/day sulfamethoxazole plus 70 mg/kg/day trimethoprim, doses roughly two times the recommended human daily dose on a body surface area basis.

Pregnancy

While there are no large, well-controlled studies on the use of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pregnant women, Brumfitt and Pursell,10 in a retrospective study, reported the outcome of 186 pregnancies during which the mother received either placebo or sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The incidence of congenital abnormalities was 4.5% (3 of 66) in those who received placebo and 3.3% (4 of 120) in those receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. There were no abnormalities in the 10 children whose mothers received the drug during the first trimester. In a separate survey, Brumfitt and Pursell also found no congenital abnormalities in 35 children whose mothers had received oral sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim at the time of conception or shortly thereafter.

Because sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may interfere with folic acid metabolism, BACTRIM should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category D

Human Data

While there are no large prospective, well controlled studies in pregnant women and their babies, some retrospective epidemiologic studies suggest an association between first trimester exposure to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim with an increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly neural tube defects, cardiovascular abnormalities, urinary tract defects, oral clefts, and club foot. These studies, however, were limited by the small number of exposed cases and the lack of adjustment for multiple statistical comparisons and confounders. These studies are further limited by recall, selection, and information biases, and by limited generalizability of their findings. Lastly, outcome measures varied between studies, limiting cross-study comparisons. Alternatively, other epidemiologic studies did not detect statistically significant associations between sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim exposure and specific malformations.

Animal Data

In rats, oral doses of either 533 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole or 200 mg/kg trimethoprim produced teratologic effects manifested mainly as cleft palates. These doses are approximately 5 and 6 times the recommended human total daily dose on a body surface area basis. In two studies in rats, no teratology was observed when 512 mg/kg of sulfamethoxazole was used in combination with 128 mg/kg of trimethoprim. In some rabbit studies, an overall increase in fetal loss (dead and resorbed conceptuses) was associated with doses of trimethoprim 6 times the human therapeutic dose based on body surface area.

Nonteratogenic Effects

See CONTRAINDICATIONS section.

Nursing Mothers

Levels of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in breast milk are approximately 2– 5% of the recommended daily dose for infants over 2 months of age. Caution should be exercised when BACTRIM is administered to a nursing woman, especially when breastfeeding, jaundiced, ill, stressed, or premature infants because of the potential risk of bilirubin displacement and kernicterus.

Pediatric Use

BACTRIM is contraindicated for infants younger than 2 months of age (see INDICATIONS and CONTRAINDICATIONS sections).

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of BACTRIM did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.

There may be an increased risk of severe adverse reactions in elderly patients, particularly when complicating conditions exist, e.g., impaired kidney and/or liver function, possible folate deficiency, or concomitant use of other drugs. Severe skin reactions, generalized bone marrow suppression (see WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS sections), a specific decrease in platelets (with or without purpura), and hyperkalemia are the most frequently reported severe adverse reactions in elderly patients. In those concurrently receiving certain diuretics, primarily thiazides, an increased incidence of thrombocytopenia with purpura has been reported. Increased digoxin blood levels can occur with concomitant BACTRIM therapy, especially in elderly patients. Serum digoxin levels should be monitored. Hematological changes indicative of folic acid deficiency may occur in elderly patients. These effects are reversible by folinic acid therapy. Appropriate dosage adjustments should be made for patients with impaired kidney function and duration of use should be as short as possible to minimize risks of undesired reactions (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section). The trimethoprim component of BACTRIM may cause hyperkalemia when administered to patients with underlying disorders of potassium metabolism, with renal insufficiency or when given concomitantly with drugs known to induce hyperkalemia, such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Close monitoring of serum potassium is warranted in these patients. Discontinuation of BACTRIM treatment is recommended to help lower potassium serum levels. Bactrim Tablets contain 1.8 mg sodium (0.08 mEq) of sodium per tablet. Bactrim DS Tablets contain 3.6 mg (0.16 mEq) of sodium per tablet.

Pharmacokinetics parameters for sulfamethoxazole were similar for geriatric subjects and younger adult subjects. The mean maximum serum trimethoprim concentration was higher and mean renal clearance of trimethoprim was lower in geriatric subjects compared with younger subjects (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Geriatric Pharmacokinetics).

REFERENCES

8. Marinella Mark A. 1999. Trimethoprim-induced hyperkalemia: An analysis of reported cases. Gerontol. 45:209–212.

9. Margassery, S. and B. Bastani. 2002. Life threatening hyperkalemia and acidosis secondary to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment. J. Nephrol. 14:410–414.

10. Brumfitt W, Pursell R. Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole in the Treatment of Bacteriuria in Women. J Infect Dis. Nov 1973; 128 (Suppl):S657–S663.

OverDose

Acute

The amount of a single dose of BACTRIM that is either associated with symptoms of overdosage or is likely to be life-threatening has not been reported. Signs and symptoms of overdosage reported with sulfonamides include anorexia, colic, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, drowsiness and unconsciousness. Pyrexia, hematuria and crystalluria may be noted. Blood dyscrasias and jaundice are potential late manifestations of overdosage.

Signs of acute overdosage with trimethoprim include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, mental depression, confusion and bone marrow depression.

General principles of treatment include the institution of gastric lavage or emesis, forcing oral fluids, and the administration of intravenous fluids if urine output is low and renal function is normal. Acidification of the urine will increase renal elimination of trimethoprim. The patient should be monitored with blood counts and appropriate blood chemistries, including electrolytes. If a significant blood dyscrasia or jaundice occurs, specific therapy should be instituted for these complications. Peritoneal dialysis is not effective and hemodialysis is only moderately effective in eliminating sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim.

Chronic

Use of BACTRIM at high doses and/or for extended periods of time may cause bone marrow depression manifested as thrombocytopenia, leukopenia and/or megaloblastic anemia. If signs of bone marrow depression occur, the patient should be given leucovorin 5 to 15 mg daily until normal hematopoiesis is restored.

ContrainDications

BACTRIM is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim or sulfonamides, in patients with a history of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia with use of trimethoprim and/or sulfonamides, and in patients with documented megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency.

BACTRIM is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age. BACTRIM is also contraindicated in patients with marked hepatic damage or with severe renal insufficiency when renal function status cannot be monitored.

Clinical Pharamacology

BACTRIM is rapidly absorbed following oral administration. Both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim exist in the blood as unbound, protein-bound and metabolized forms; sulfamethoxazole also exists as the conjugated form. Sulfamethoxazole is metabolized in humans to at least 5 metabolites: the N4-acetyl-, N4-hydroxy-, 5-methylhydroxy-, N4-acetyl- 5-methylhydroxy- sulfamethoxazole metabolites, and an N-glucuronide conjugate. The formulation of N4-hydroxy metabolite is mediated via CYP2C9.

Trimethoprim is metabolized in vitro to 11 different metabolites, of which, five are glutathione adducts and six are oxidative metabolites, including the major metabolites, 1- and 3-oxides and the 3- and 4-hydroxy derivatives.

The free forms of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are considered to be the therapeutically active forms.

In vitro studies suggest that trimethoprim is a substrate of P-glycoprotein, OCT1 and OCT2, and that sulfamethoxazole is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein.

Approximately 70% of sulfamethoxazole and 44% of trimethoprim are bound to plasma proteins. The presence of 10 mg percent sulfamethoxazole in plasma decreases the protein binding of trimethoprim by an insignificant degree; trimethoprim does not influence the protein binding of sulfamethoxazole.

Peak blood levels for the individual components occur 1 to 4 hours after oral administration. The mean serum half-lives of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are 10 and 8 to 10 hours, respectively. However, patients with severely impaired renal function exhibit an increase in the half-lives of both components, requiring dosage regimen adjustment (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section). Detectable amounts of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are present in the blood 24 hours after drug administration. During administration of 800 mg sulfamethoxazole and 160 mg trimethoprim b.i.d., the mean steady-state plasma concentration of trimethoprim was 1.72 μg/mL. The steady-state mean plasma levels of free and total sulfamethoxazole were 57.4 μg/mL and 68.0 μg/mL, respectively. These steady-state levels were achieved after three days of drug administration.1 Excretion of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is primarily by the kidneys through both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Urine concentrations of both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are considerably higher than are the concentrations in the blood. The average percentage of the dose recovered in urine from 0 to 72 hours after a single oral dose of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is 84.5% for total sulfonamide and 66.8% for free trimethoprim. Thirty percent of the total sulfonamide is excreted as free sulfamethoxazole, with the remaining as N4-acetylated metabolite.2 When administered together as sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, neither sulfamethoxazole nor trimethoprim affects the urinary excretion pattern of the other.

Both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim distribute to sputum, vaginal fluid and middle ear fluid; trimethoprim also distributes to bronchial secretion, and both pass the placental barrier and are excreted in human milk.

Geriatric Pharmacokinetics: The pharmacokinetics of sulfamethoxazole 800 mg and trimethoprim 160 mg were studied in 6 geriatric subjects (mean age: 78.6 years) and 6 young healthy subjects (mean age: 29.3 years) using a non-US approved formulation. Pharmacokinetic values for sulfamethoxazole in geriatric subjects were similar to those observed in young adult subjects. The mean renal clearance of trimethoprim was significantly lower in geriatric subjects compared with young adult subjects (19 mL/h/kg vs. 55 mL/h/kg). However, after normalizing by body weight, the apparent total body clearance of trimethoprim was on average 19% lower in geriatric subjects compared with young adult subjects.3

Microbiology

Sulfamethoxazole inhibits bacterial synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by competing with paraaminobenzoic acid (PABA). Trimethoprim blocks the production of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolic acid by binding to and reversibly inhibiting the required enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase. Thus, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim blocks two consecutive steps in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins essential to many bacteria.

In vitro studies have shown that bacterial resistance develops more slowly with both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in combination than with either sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim alone.

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim have been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.

Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms

Escherichia coli (including susceptible enterotoxigenic strains implicated in traveler's diarrhea)
Klebsiella
species
Enterobacter
species
Haemophilus influenzae

Morganella morganii

Proteus mirabilis

Proteus vulgaris

Shigella flexneri

Shigella sonnei

Other Organisms

Pneumocystis jiroveci

Susceptibility Testing Methods

When available, the clinical microbiology laboratory should provide the results of in vitro susceptibility test results for antimicrobial drug products used in resident hospitals to the physician as periodic reports that describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. These reports should aid the physician in selecting an antibacterial drug for treatment.

Dilution Techniques

Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized test method (broth or agar)4,15. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the criteria provided in Table 1.

Diffusion Techniques

Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters can also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size provides an estimate of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size should be determined using a standardized test method14,15. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 1.25/23.75 μg of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The disc diffusion interpretive criteria are provided in Table 1.

Table 1: Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria for Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole

Bacteria Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (mcg/mL) Zone Diameter (mm)
S I R S I R
Enterobacteriaceae ≤ 2/38 - ≥ 4/76 ≥ 16 11 – 15 ≤ 10
Haemophilus influenzae ≤ 0.5/9.5 1/19 – 2/38 ≥ 4/76 ≥ 16 11 – 15 ≤ 10
Streptococcus pneumoniae ≤ 0.5/9.5 1/19 – 2/38 ≥ 4/76 ≥ 19 16 – 18 ≤ 15

A report of Susceptible indicates that the antimicrobial is likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial compound reaches the concentrations at the site of infection necessary to inhibit growth of the pathogen. A report of Intermediate indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone that prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of Resistant indicates that the antimicrobial is not likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial compound reaches the concentrations usually achievable at the infection site; other therapy should be selected.

Quality Control

Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory controls to monitor and ensure the accuracy and precision of supplies and reagents used in the assay and the techniques of the individuals performing the test4,14,15. Standard trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole powder should provide the following range of MIC values noted in Table 2. For the diffusion technique using the 1.25/23.75 μg trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole disk the criteria in Table 2 should be achieved.

Table 2: Acceptable Quality Control Ranges for Susceptibility Testing for Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole

QC Strain Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (mcg/mL) Zone Diameter (mm)
Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 ≤ 0.5/9.5 23–29
Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247 0.03/0.59 – 0.25/4.75 24–32
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 0.12/2.4 – 1/19 20–28

REFERENCES

1. Kremers P, Duvivier J, Heusghem C. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Co-Trimoxazole in Man after Single and Repeated Doses. J Clin Pharmacol. Feb-Mar 1974; 14:112–117.

2. Kaplan SA, et al. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole in Man. J Infect Dis. Nov 1973; 128 (Suppl): S547–S555.

3. Varoquaux O, et al. Pharmacokinetics of the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination in the elderly. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1985;20:575–581.

4. Rudoy RC, Nelson JD, Haltalin KC. Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. May 1974;5:439–443.

14. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard – 11th ed. CLSI document M02–A11, CLSI, Wayne, PA, 2012.

15. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-third Informational Supplement, CLSI document M100–S23. CLSI document M100–S23, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 2013

Patient Information

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Bactrim (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) tablets should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Bactrim (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) tablets are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Bactrim (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) tablets or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Patients should be instructed to maintain an adequate fluid intake in order to prevent crystalluria and stone formation.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Consumer Overview Uses

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

 

SULFAMETHOXAZOLE/TRIMETHOPRIM- ORAL

 

(sull-fuh-meth-OX-uh-zole/try-METH-oh-prim)

 

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Bactrim, Septra

 

USES: This medication is a combination of two antibiotics: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. It is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections (such as middle ear, urine, respiratory, and intestinal infections). It is also used to prevent and treat a certain type of pneumonia (pneumocystis-type).

This medication should not be used in children less than 2 months of age due to the risk of serious side effects.

This medication treats only certain types of infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as flu). Unnecessary use or misuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.

 

HOW TO USE: Take this medication by mouth, as directed by your doctor, with a full glass of water (8 ounces / 240 milliliters). If stomach upset occurs, take with food or milk. Drink plenty of fluids while taking this medication to lower the unlikely risk of kidney stones forming, unless your doctor advises you otherwise. Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.

Antibiotics work best when the amount of medicine in your body is kept at a constant level. Therefore, take this drug at evenly spaced intervals.

Continue to take this medication until the full prescribed amount is finished, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping it too early may allow bacteria to continue to grow, which may result in a relapse of the infection.

Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.

Consumer Overview Side Effect

SIDE EFFECTS: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of appetite may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: muscle weakness, mental/mood changes, blood in the urine, change in the amount of urine, extreme drowsiness, signs of low blood sugar (such as nervousness, shakiness, sweating, hunger).

Get medical help right away if you have any very serious side effects, including: persistent headache, neck stiffness, seizures, slow/irregular heartbeat.

This medication may rarely cause serious (possibly fatal) allergic reactions and other side effects such as a severe peeling skin rash (such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome), blood disorders (such as agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia), liver damage, or lung injury. If you notice any of the following, get medical help right away: skin rash/blisters, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), persistent sore throat or fever, paleness, joint pain/aches, persistent cough, trouble breathing, easy bleeding/bruising, yellowing eyes or skin, persistent nausea/vomiting, unusual fatigue, dark urine.

This medication may rarely cause a severe intestinal condition (Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea) due to a type of resistant bacteria. This condition may occur during treatment or weeks to months after treatment has stopped. Tell your doctor right away if you develop: persistent diarrhea, abdominal or stomach pain/cramping, blood/mucus in your stool.

Do not use anti-diarrhea products or narcotic pain medications if you have any of these symptoms because these products may make them worse.

Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in oral thrush or a new yeast infection. Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth, a change in vaginal discharge, or other new symptoms.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

 

Read the Bactrim (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

PRECAUTIONS: Before taking sulfamethoxazole with trimethoprim, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to sulfa medications or trimethoprim; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney disease, liver disease, certain blood disorders (such as porphyria, anemia due to folate vitamin deficiency), history of blood disorders caused by trimethoprim or sulfa medications, vitamin deficiency (folate or folic acid), severe allergies, asthma, decreased bone marrow function (bone marrow suppression), a certain metabolic disorder (G6PD deficiency), underactive thyroid, mineral imbalances (such as high level of potassium or low level of sodium in the blood).

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

This medication may make you more sensitive to the sun. Avoid prolonged sun exposure, tanning booths or sunlamps. Use a sunscreen and wear protective clothing when outdoors.

If you have diabetes, this product may affect your blood sugar levels. Check your blood sugar levels regularly as directed by your doctor. Tell your doctor immediately if you have symptoms of low blood sugar (see Side Effects section). Your doctor may need to adjust your diabetes medication, exercise program, or diet.

Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially skin reactions, blood disorders, easy bleeding/bruising, and a high potassium blood level.

Patients with AIDS may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially skin reactions, fever, and blood disorders.

This medication is not recommended for use during pregnancy especially near the expected delivery date because of possible harm to the unborn baby. Consult your doctor for more details.

This drug passes into breast milk. While there have been no reports of harm to healthy infants, this drug may have undesirable effects on infants who are ill or premature or have certain disorders (jaundice, high blood levels of bilirubin, G6PD deficiency). Therefore, breast-feeding is not recommended for infants with these conditions. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Consumer Overview Missed Dose

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

Some products that may interact with this drug include: "blood thinners" (such as warfarin), cyclosporine, dofetilide, hydantoins (such as phenytoin), live vaccines, methenamine, methotrexate.

Although most antibiotics probably do not affect hormonal birth control such as pills, patch, or ring, some antibiotics may decrease their effectiveness. This could cause pregnancy. Examples include rifamycins such as rifampin or rifabutin. Be sure to ask your doctor or pharmacist if you should use additional reliable birth control methods while using this antibiotic.

This product may interfere with certain laboratory tests, possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this product.

 

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: severe nausea/vomiting/diarrhea, severe dizziness or drowsiness, mental/mood changes.

 

NOTES: Do not share this medication with others.

This medication has been prescribed for your current condition only. Do not use it later for another infection unless told to do so by your doctor. A different medication may be necessary in that case.

If taking this medication for an extended period, laboratory and/or medical tests (such as complete blood count, kidney function tests, potassium blood level, cultures) should be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

 

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

 

STORAGE: Store at room temperature away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

Patient Detailed Side Effect

Brand Names: Bactrim, Bactrim DS, Septra, Septra DS, SMZ-TMP DS, Sulfatrim Pediatric

Generic Name: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (Pronunciation: SUL fa meth OX a zole and trye METH oh prim)

  • What is sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (Bactrim)?
  • What are the possible side effects of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim?
  • What is the most important information I should know about sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim?
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim?
  • How should I take sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim?
  • What happens if I miss a dose?
  • What happens if I overdose?
  • What should I avoid while taking sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim?
  • What other drugs will affect sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim?
  • Where can I get more information?

What is sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (Bactrim)?

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are both antibiotics that treat different types of infection caused by bacteria.

The combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is used to treat ear infections, urinary tract infections, bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, shigellosis, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia.

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

SMZ-TMP DS-MUT

elliptical, white, imprinted with MP 85

What are the possible side effects of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
  • fever, chills, swollen glands, body aches, flu symptoms, sores in your mouth and throat;
  • new or worsening cough;
  • pale skin, feeling light-headed, rapid heart rate, trouble concentrating;
  • easy bruising, unusual bleeding (nose, mouth, vagina, or rectum), purple or red pinpoint spots under your skin;
  • severe tingling or numbness, slow heart rate, weak pulse, muscle weakness;
  • nausea, upper stomach pain, itching, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
  • urinating less than usual or not at all;
  • hallucinations, seizure (convulsions);
  • low blood sugar (headache, hunger, weakness, sweating, confusion, irritability, or feeling jittery);
  • the first sign of any skin rash, no matter how mild; or
  • severe skin reaction -- fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain, followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • vomiting;
  • painful or swollen tongue;
  • dizziness, spinning sensation;
  • ringing in your ears; or
  • tired feeling, sleep problems (insomnia).

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Bactrim (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

What is the most important information I should know about sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim?

You should not use this medication if you are allergic to sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim, if you are pregnant or breast-feeding, or if you have anemia (lack of red blood cells) caused by folic acid deficiency.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor if you have kidney or liver disease, a folic acid deficiency, asthma or severe allergies, a thyroid disorder, HIV or AIDS, porphyria, G6PD deficiency, or if you are malnourished.

Take this medicine for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or has blood in it, call your doctor. Do not use any medicine to stop the diarrhea unless your doctor has told you to.

Avoid exposure to sunlight or tanning beds. This medication can make you sunburn more easily. Wear protective clothing and use sunscreen (SPF 30 or higher) when you are outdoors.

Side Effects Centers
  • Bactrim
  • Septra

Patient Detailed How Take

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim?

You should not use this medication if you are allergic to sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim, if you are pregnant or breast-feeding, or if you have anemia (lack of red blood cells) caused by folic acid deficiency.

To make sure this medication is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

  • kidney or liver disease;
  • a folic acid deficiency;
  • asthma or severe allergies;
  • a thyroid disorder;
  • HIV or AIDS;
  • porphyria (a genetic enzyme disorder that causes symptoms affecting the skin or nervous system);
  • a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD deficiency); or
  • if you are malnourished.

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using this medication.

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

Do not give this medication to a child younger than 2 months old.

Older adults may be more likely to have side effects from this medicine.

How should I take sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim?

Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Measure liquid medicine with a special dose-measuring spoon or cup, not a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

Take this medicine for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

Drink plenty of fluids to prevent kidney stones while you are taking trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole.

This medication can cause unusual results with certain medical tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim.

Store at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light.

Side Effects Centers
  • Bactrim
  • Septra

Patient Detailed Avoid Taking

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

Overdose symptoms may include severe forms of some of the side effects listed in this medication guide.

What should I avoid while taking sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim?

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, stop taking this medication and call your doctor. Do not use anti-diarrhea medicine unless your doctor tells you to.

Avoid exposure to sunlight or tanning beds. This medication can make you sunburn more easily. Wear protective clothing and use sunscreen (SPF 30 or higher) when you are outdoors.

What other drugs will affect sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim?

Tell your doctor about all other medications you use, especially:

  • an antidepressant;
  • a blood thinner such as warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven);
  • cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune);
  • oral diabetes medication;
  • digoxin (Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps);
  • a diuretic (water pill);
  • indomethacin (Indocin);
  • leucovorin, calcium folinate;
  • methotrexate (Trexall, Rheumatrex);
  • heart or blood pressure medication such as benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), fosinopril (Monopril), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), ramipril (Altace), or trandolapril (Mavik).
  • seizure medication such as phenytoin (Dilantin);

This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2013 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 7.01. Revision date: 9/28/2012.

Your use of the content provided in this service indicates that you have read,understood and agree to the End-User License Agreement,which can be accessed by clicking on this link.

Healthwise

Side Effects Centers
  • Bactrim
  • Septra

Rx Scoops
Featured Topics
Advertisements
Copyrights ©2014: Rx Scoops - Designed & Developed By - GOIGI