Drugs Details

Drugs Info of Mavik
Drugs Details
  • Drugs Type  : FDA
  • Date : 29th Jun 2015 07:31 am
  • Brand Name : Mavik
  • Generic Name : trandolapril (Pronunciation: tran DOE la pril)
Descriptions

Trandolapril is the ethyl ester prodrug of a nonsulfhydryl angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, trandolaprilat. Trandolapril is chemically described as (2S, 3aR, 7aS)-1-[(S)-N-[(S)-1-Carboxy-3phenylpropyl]alanyl] hexahydro-2-indolinecarboxylic acid, 1-ethyl ester. Its empirical formula is C24H34N2O5 and its structural formula is

 

MAVIK® (trandolapril) Structural Formula Illustration

M.W. = 430.54
Melting Point = 125°C

Trandolapril is a white or almost white powder that is soluble ( > 100 mg/mL) in chloroform, dichloromethane, and methanol. MAVIK tablets contain 1 mg, 2 mg, or 4 mg of trandolapril for oral administration. Each tablet also contains corn starch, croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, iron oxide, lactose monohydrate, povidone, sodium stearyl fumarate.

What are the possible side effects of trandolapril (Mavik)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. You may be more likely to have an allergic reaction if you are African-American.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • urinating less than usual, or not at all;
  • swelling, weight gain, feeling short of breath;
  • feeling like you might pass out;
  • chest pain, trouble breathing;
  • pounding heartbeats or fluttering in your chest;
  • fever, chills, body...

Read All Potential Side Effects and See Pictures of Mavik »

What are the precautions when taking trandolapril (Mavik)?

Before taking trandolapril, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other ACE inhibitors (e.g., benazepril, captopril); or if you have any other allergies (including exposure to certain membranes used for blood filtering). This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: history of an allergic reaction which included swelling of the face/lips/tongue/throat (angioedema).

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver disease, high blood levels of...

Read All Potential Precautions of Mavik »

Indications

Hypertension

MAVIK is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive medication such as hydrochlorothiazide.

Heart Failure Post Myocardial Infarction or Left-Ventricular Dysfunction Post Myocardial Infarction

MAVIK is indicated in stable patients who have evidence of left-ventricular systolic dysfunction (identified by wall motion abnormalities) or who are symptomatic from congestive heart failure within the first few days after sustaining acute myocardial infarction. Administration of trandolapril to Caucasian patients has been shown to decrease the risk of death (principally cardiovascular death) and to decrease the risk of heart failure-related hospitalization (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY - Heart Failure or Left-Ventricular Dysfunction Post Myocardial Infarction for details of the survival trial).

Dosage Administration

Hypertension

The recommended initial dosage of MAVIK for patients not receiving a diuretic is 1 mg once daily in non-black patients and 2 mg in black patients. Dosage should be adjusted according to the blood pressure response. Generally, dosage adjustments should be made at intervals of at least 1 week. Most patients have required dosages of 2 to 4 mg once daily. There is little clinical experience with doses above 8 mg.

Patients inadequately treated with once-daily dosing at 4 mg may be treated with twice-daily dosing. If blood pressure is not adequately controlled with MAVIK monotherapy, a diuretic may be added.

In patients who are currently being treated with a diuretic, symptomatic hypotension occasionally can occur following the initial dose of MAVIK. To reduce the likelihood of hypotension, the diuretic should, if possible, be discontinued two to three days prior to beginning therapy with MAVIK. (see WARNINGS.) Then, if blood pressure is not controlled with MAVIK alone, diuretic therapy should be resumed. If the diuretic cannot be discontinued, an initial dose of 0.5 mg MAVIK should be used with careful medical supervision for several hours until blood pressure has stabilized. The dosage should subsequently be titrated (as described above) to the optimal response. (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS.)

Concomitant administration of MAVIK with potassium supplements, potassium salt substitutes, or potassium sparing diuretics can lead to increases of serum potassium. (see PRECAUTIONS.)

Heart Failure Post Myocardial Infarction or Left-Ventricular Dysfunction Post Myocardial Infarction

The recommended starting dose is 1 mg, once daily. Following the initial dose, all patients should be titrated (as tolerated) toward a target dose of 4 mg, once daily. If a 4 mg dose is not tolerated, patients can continue therapy with the greatest tolerated dose.

Dosage Adjustment in Renal Impairment or Hepatic Cirrhosis

For patients with a creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min. or with hepatic cirrhosis, the recommended starting dose, based on clinical and pharmacokinetic data, is 0.5 mg daily. Patients should subsequently have their dosage titrated (as described above) to the optimal response.

How Supplied

MAVIK (trandolapril Tablets are supplied as follows:

1 mg tablet - Salmon colored, round shaped, scored, compressed tablets, with Abbott “A” logo on one side and Abbo-Code identification letters FT on the other side. NDC 0074-2278-13 - bottles of 100 NDC 0074-2278-11 - unit dose packs of 100

2 mg tablet - Yellow colored, round shaped, compressed tablets, with Abbott “A” logo on one side and Abbo-Code identification letters FX on the other side. NDC 0074-2279-13 - bottles of 100 NDC 0074-2279-11 - unit dose packs of 100

4 mg tablet - Rose colored, round shaped, compressed tablets, with Abbott “A” logo on one side and Abbo-Code identification letters FZ on the other side. NDC 0074-2280-13 - bottles of 100 NDC 0074-2280-11 - unit dose packs of 100

Dispense in well-closed container with safety closure.

Storage

Store at controlled room temperature: 20-25°C (68-77°F) see USP.

Manufactured by Halo Pharmaceutical Inc. Whippany, N.J. 07981, U.S.A. for Abbott Laboratories North Chicago, IL 60064, U.S.A. Revised: 8/2012

Side Effects

The safety experience in U.S. placebo-controlled trials included 1069 hypertensive patients, of whom 832 received MAVIK. Nearly 200 hypertensive patients received MAVIK for over one year in open-label trials. In controlled trials, withdrawals for adverse events were 2.1% on placebo and 1.4% on MAVIK. Adverse events considered at least possibly related to treatment occurring in 1% of MAVIK-treated patients and more common on MAVIK than placebo, pooled for all doses, are shown below, together with the frequency of discontinuation of treatment because of these events.

ADVERSE EVENTS IN PLACEBO-CONTROLLED HYPERTENSION TRIALS

  Occurring at 1% or greater
MAVIK (N=832)
% Incidence
(% Discontinuance)
PLACEBO (N=237)
% Incidence
(% Discontinuance)
Cough 1.9 (0.1) 0.4 (0.4)
Dizziness 1.3 (0.2) 0.4 (0.4)
Diarrhea 1.0 (0.0) 0.4 (0.0)

Headache and fatigue were all seen in more than 1% of MAVIK-treated patients but were more frequently seen on placebo. Adverse events were not usually persistent or difficult to manage.

Left Ventricular Dysfunction Post Myocardial Infarction

Adverse reactions related to MAVIK occurring at a rate greater than that observed in placebo-treated patients with left ventricular dysfunction, are shown below. The incidences represent the experiences from the TRACE study. The follow-up time was between 24 and 50 months for this study.

Percentage of Patients with Adverse Events Greater Than Placebo

Adverse Event Placebo-Controlled (TRACE) Mortality Study
Trandolapril
N=876
Placebo
N=873
Cough 35 22
Dizziness 23 17
Hypotension 11 6.8
Elevated serum uric acid 15 13
Elevated BUN 9.0 7.6
PICA or CABG 7.3 6.1
Dyspepsia 6.4 6.0
Syncope 5.9 3.3
Hyperkalemia 5.3 2.8
Bradycardia 4.7 4.4
Hypocalcemia 4.7 3.9
Myalgia 4.7 3.1
Elevated creatinine 4.7 2.4
Gastritis 4.2 3.6
Cardiogenic shock 3.8 < 2
Intermittent claudication 3.8 < 2
Stroke 3.3 3.2
Asthenia 3.3 2.6

Clinical adverse experiences possibly or probably related or of uncertain relationship to therapy occurring in 0.3% to 1.0% (except as noted) of the patients treated with MAVIK (with or without concomitant calcium ion antagonist or diuretic) in controlled or uncontrolled trials (N=1134) and less frequent, clinically significant events seen in clinical trials or post-marketing experience include (listed by body system):

General Body Function

Chest pain.

Cardiovascular

AV first degree block, bradycardia, edema, flushing, and palpitations.

Central Nervous System

Drowsiness, insomnia, paresthesia, vertigo.

Dermatologic

Pruritus, rash, pemphigus.

Eye, Ear, Nose, Throat

Epistaxis, throat inflammation, upper respiratory tract infection.

Emotional, Mental, Sexual States

Anxiety, impotence, decreased libido.

Gastrointestinal

Abdominal distention, abdominal pain/cramps, constipation, dyspepsia, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea.

Hemopoietic

Decreased leukocytes, decreased neutrophils.

Metabolism and Endocrine

Increased liver enzymes including SGPT (ALT).

Musculoskeletal System

Extremity pain, muscle cramps, gout.

Pulmonary

Dyspnea.

Postmarketing

The following adverse reactions were identified during post approval use of MAVIK. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

General Body Function

Malaise, fever.

Cardiovascular

Myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, angina pectoris, cardiac failure, ventricular tachycardia, tachycardia, transient ischemic attack, arrhythmia.

Central Nervous System

Cerebral hemorrhage.

Dermatologic

Alopecia, sweating, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Emotional, Mental, Sexual States

Hallucination, depression.

Gastrointestinal

Dry mouth, pancreatitis, jaundice and hepatitis.

Hemopoietic

Agranulocytosis, pancytopenia.

Metabolism and Endocrine

Increased SGOT (AST).

Pulmonary

Bronchitis.

Renal and Urinary

Renal failure.

Clinical Laboratory Test Findings

Hematology

Thrombocytopenia.

Serum Electrolytes

Hyponatremia.

Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen

Increases in creatinine levels occurred in 1.1% of patients receiving MAVIK alone and 7.3% of patients treated with MAVIK, a calcium ion antagonist and a diuretic. Increases in blood urea nitrogen levels occurred in 0.6% of patients receiving MAVIK alone and 1.4% of patients receiving MAVIK, a calcium ion antagonist, and a diuretic. None of these increases required discontinuation of treatment. Increases in these laboratory values are more likely to occur in patients with renal insufficiency or those pretreated with a diuretic and, based on experience with other ACE inhibitors, would be expected to be especially likely in patients with renal artery stenosis. (see PRECAUTIONS and WARNINGS.)

Liver Function Tests

Occasional elevation of transaminases at the rate of 3X upper normals occurred in 0.8% of patients and persistent increase in bilirubin occurred in 0.2% of patients. Discontinuation for elevated liver enzymes occurred in 0.2% of patients.

Other

Another potentially important adverse experience, eosinophilic pneumonitis, has been attributed to other ACE inhibitors.

Read the Mavik (trandolapril) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Interactions

Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)

Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on MAVIK and other agents that affect the RAS.

Do not co-administer aliskiren with MAVIK in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with MAVIK in patients with renal impairment (GFR < 60 ml/min).

Concomitant Diuretic Therapy

As with other ACE inhibitors, patients on diuretics, especially those on recently instituted diuretic therapy, may experience an excessive reduction of blood pressure after initiation of therapy with MAVIK. The possibility of exacerbation of hypotensive effects with MAVIK may be minimized by either discontinuing the diuretic or cautiously increasing salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with MAVIK. If it is not possible to discontinue the diuretic, the starting dose of trandolapril should be reduced. (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

Agents Increasing Serum Potassium

Trandolapril can attenuate potassium loss caused by thiazide diuretics and increase serum potassium when used alone. Use of potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, triamterene, or amiloride), potassium supplements, or potassium-containing salt substitutes concomitantly with ACE inhibitors can increase the risk of hyperkalemia. If concomitant use of such agents is indicated, they should be used with caution and with appropriate monitoring of serum potassium. (see PRECAUTIONS.)

Antidiabetic Agents

Concomitant use of ACE inhibitors and antidiabetic medicines (insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents) may cause an increased blood glucose lowering effect with greater risk of hypoglycemia.

Lithium

Increased serum lithium levels and symptoms of lithium toxicity have been reported in patients receiving concomitant lithium and ACE inhibitor therapy. These drugs should be coadministered with caution, and frequent monitoring of serum lithium levels is recommended. If a diuretic is also used, the risk of lithium toxicity may be increased.

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors)

In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with ACE inhibitors, including trandolapril, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving trandolapril and NSAID therapy.

The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors, including trandolapril may be attenuated by NSAIDs.

Gold

Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy including MAVIK.

Other

No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction has been found between trandolaprilat and food, cimetidine, digoxin, or furosemide.

The anticoagulant effect of warfarin was not significantly changed by trandolapril.

The hypotensive effect of certain inhalation anesthetics may be enhanced by ACE inhibitors including trandolapril (see PRECAUTIONS-Surgery/Anesthesia).

Read the Mavik Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

Learn More »

Warnings

Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)

Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on MAVIK and other agents that affect the RAS.

Do not co-administer aliskiren with MAVIK in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with MAVIK in patients with renal impairment (GFR < 60 ml/min).

Concomitant Diuretic Therapy

As with other ACE inhibitors, patients on diuretics, especially those on recently instituted diuretic therapy, may experience an excessive reduction of blood pressure after initiation of therapy with MAVIK. The possibility of exacerbation of hypotensive effects with MAVIK may be minimized by either discontinuing the diuretic or cautiously increasing salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with MAVIK. If it is not possible to discontinue the diuretic, the starting dose of trandolapril should be reduced. (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

Agents Increasing Serum Potassium

Trandolapril can attenuate potassium loss caused by thiazide diuretics and increase serum potassium when used alone. Use of potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, triamterene, or amiloride), potassium supplements, or potassium-containing salt substitutes concomitantly with ACE inhibitors can increase the risk of hyperkalemia. If concomitant use of such agents is indicated, they should be used with caution and with appropriate monitoring of serum potassium. (see PRECAUTIONS.)

Antidiabetic Agents

Concomitant use of ACE inhibitors and antidiabetic medicines (insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents) may cause an increased blood glucose lowering effect with greater risk of hypoglycemia.

Lithium

Increased serum lithium levels and symptoms of lithium toxicity have been reported in patients receiving concomitant lithium and ACE inhibitor therapy. These drugs should be coadministered with caution, and frequent monitoring of serum lithium levels is recommended. If a diuretic is also used, the risk of lithium toxicity may be increased.

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors)

In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with ACE inhibitors, including trandolapril, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving trandolapril and NSAID therapy.

The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors, including trandolapril may be attenuated by NSAIDs.

Gold

Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy including MAVIK.

Other

No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction has been found between trandolaprilat and food, cimetidine, digoxin, or furosemide.

The anticoagulant effect of warfarin was not significantly changed by trandolapril.

The hypotensive effect of certain inhalation anesthetics may be enhanced by ACE inhibitors including trandolapril (see PRECAUTIONS-Surgery/Anesthesia).

Read the Mavik Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

Learn More »

Precautions

General

Impaired Renal Function

As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals. In patients with severe heart failure whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, treatment with ACE inhibitors, including MAVIK (trandolapril), may be associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and rarely with acute renal failure and/or death.

In hypertensive patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine have been observed in some patients following ACE inhibitor therapy. These increases were almost always reversible upon discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor and/or diuretic therapy. In such patients, renal function should be monitored during the first few weeks of therapy.

Some hypertensive patients with no apparent preexisting renal vascular disease have developed increases in blood urea and serum creatinine, usually minor and transient, especially when ACE inhibitors have been given concomitantly with a diuretic. This is more likely to occur in patients with preexisting renal impairment. Dosage reduction and/or discontinuation of any diuretic and/or the ACE inhibitor may be required. Evaluation of hypertensive patients should always include assessment of renal function. (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

Hyperkalemia and Potassium-sparing Diuretics

In clinical trials, hyperkalemia (serum potassium > 6.00 mEq/L) occurred in approximately 0.4% of hypertensive patients receiving MAVIK. In most cases, elevated serum potassium levels were isolated values, which resolved despite continued therapy. None of these patients were discontinued from the trials because of hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes, which should be used cautiously, if at all, with MAVIK. (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS.)

Cough

Presumably due to the inhibition of the degradation of endogenous bradykinin, persistent nonproductive cough has been reported with all ACE inhibitors, always resolving after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough. In controlled trials of trandolapril, cough was present in 2% of trandolapril patients and 0% of patients given placebo. There was no evidence of a relationship to dose.

Surgery/Anesthesia

In patients undergoing major surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, MAVIK will block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release. If hypotension occurs and is considered to be due to this mechanism, it can be corrected by volume expansion.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term studies were conducted with oral trandolapril administered by gavage to mice (78 weeks) and rats (104 and 106 weeks). No evidence of carcinogenic potential was seen in mice dosed up to 25 mg/kg/day (85 mg/m²/day) or rats dosed up to 8 mg/kg/day (60 mg/m²/day). These doses are 313 and 32 times (mice), and 100 and 23 times (rats) the maximum recommended human daily dose (MRHDD) of 4 mg based on body-weight and body-surface-area, respectively assuming a 50 kg individual. The genotoxic potential of trandolapril was evaluated in the microbial mutagenicity (Ames) test, the point mutation and chromosome aberration assays in Chinese hamster V79 cells, and the micronucleus test in mice. There was no evidence of mutagenic or clastogenic potential in these in vitro and in vivo assays.

Reproduction studies in rats did not show any impairment of fertility at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day (710 mg/m²/day) of trandolapril, or 1250 and 260 times the MRHDD on the basis of body-weight and body-surfacearea, respectively.

Nursing Mothers

Radiolabeled trandolapril or its metabolites are secreted in rat milk. MAVIK should not be administered to nursing mothers.

Geriatric Use

In placebo-controlled studies of MAVIK, 31.1% of patients were 60 years and older, 20.1% were 65 years and older, and 2.3% were 75 years and older. No overall differences in effectiveness or safety were observed between these patients and younger patients. (Greater sensitivity of some older individual patients cannot be ruled out).

Pediatric Use

Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to MAVIK:

If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function.

The safety and effectiveness of MAVIK in pediatric patients have not been established.

OverDose

No data are available with respect to overdosage in humans. The oral LD50 of trandolapril in mice was 4875 mg/Kg in males and 3990 mg/Kg in females. In rats, an oral dose of 5000 mg/Kg caused low mortality (1 male out of 5; 0 females). In dogs, an oral dose of 1000 mg/Kg did not cause mortality and abnormal clinical signs were not observed. In humans, the most likely clinical manifestation would be symptoms attributable to severe hypotension. Symptoms also expected with ACE inhibitors are hypotension, hyperkalemia, and renal failure.

Laboratory determinations of serum levels of trandolapril and its metabolites are not widely available, and such determinations have, in any event, no established role in the management of trandolapril overdose. No data are available to suggest that physiological maneuvers (e.g., maneuvers to change the pH of the urine) might accelerate elimination of trandolapril and its metabolites. Trandolaprilat is removed by hemodialysis. Angiotensin II could presumably serve as a specific antagonist antidote in the setting of trandolapril overdose, but angiotensin II is essentially unavailable outside of scattered research facilities. Because the hypotensive effect of trandolapril is achieved through vasodilation and effective hypovolemia, it is reasonable to treat trandolapril overdose by infusion of normal saline solution.

ContrainDications

MAVIK is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to this product, in patients with hereditary/idiopathic angioedema and in patients with a history of angioedema related to previous treatment with an ACE inhibitor.

Clinical Pharamacology

Mechanism of Action

Trandolapril is deesterified to the diacid metabolite, trandolaprilat, which is approximately eight times more active as an inhibitor of ACE activity. ACE is a peptidyl dipeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent peripheral vasoconstrictor that also stimulates secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex and provides negative feedback for renin secretion. The effect of trandolapril in hypertension appears to result primarily from the inhibition of circulating and tissue ACE activity thereby reducing angiotensin II formation, decreasing vasoconstriction, decreasing aldosterone secretion, and increasing plasma renin. Decreased aldosterone secretion leads to diuresis, natriuresis, and a small increase of serum potassium. In controlled clinical trials, treatment with MAVIK alone resulted in mean increases in potassium of 0.1 mEq/L. (see PRECAUTIONS.)

ACE is identical to kininase II, an enzyme that degrades bradykinin, a potent peptide vasodilator; whether increased levels of bradykinin play a role in the therapeutic effect of trandolapril remains to be elucidated.

While the principal mechanism of antihypertensive effect is thought to be through the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system, trandolapril exerts antihypertensive actions even in patients with low-renin hypertension. MAVIK was an effective antihypertensive in all races studied. Both black patients (usually a predominantly low-renin group) and non-black patients responded to 2 to 4 mg of MAVIK.

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism

Pharmacokinetics

Trandolapril's ACE-inhibiting activity is primarily due to its diacid metabolite, trandolaprilat. Cleavage of the ester group of trandolapril, primarily in the liver, is responsible for conversion. Absolute bioavailability after oral administration of trandolapril is about 10% as trandolapril and 70% as trandolaprilat. After oral trandolapril under fasting conditions, peak trandolapril levels occur at about one hour and peak trandolaprilat levels occur between 4 and 10 hours. The elimination half-life of trandolapril is about 6 hours. At steady state, the effective half-life of trandolaprilat is 22.5 hours. Like all ACE inhibitors, trandolaprilat also has a prolonged terminal elimination phase, involving a small fraction of administered drug, probably representing binding to plasma and tissue ACE. During multiple dosing of trandolapril, there is no significant accumulation of trandolaprilat. Food slows absorption of trandolapril, but does not affect AUC or Cmax of trandolaprilat or Cmax of trandolapril.

Metabolism and Excretion

After oral administration of trandolapril, about 33% of parent drug and metabolites are recovered in urine, mostly as trandolaprilat, with about 66% in feces. The extent of the absorbed dose which is biliary excreted has not been determined. Plasma concentrations (Cmax and AUC of trandolapril and Cmax of trandolaprilat) are dose proportional over the 1-4 mg range, but the AUC of trandolaprilat is somewhat less than dose proportional. In addition to trandolaprilat, at least 7 other metabolites have been found, principally glucuronides or deesterification products.

Serum protein binding of trandolapril is about 80%, and is independent of concentration. Binding of trandolaprilat is concentration-dependent, varying from 65% at 1000 ng/mL to 94% at 0.1 ng/mL, indicating saturation of binding with increasing concentration.

The volume of distribution of trandolapril is about 18 liters. Total plasma clearances of trandolapril and trandolaprilat after approximately 2 mg IV doses are about 52 liters/hour and 7 liters/hour respectively. Renal clearance of trandolaprilat varies from 1-4 liters/hour, depending on dose.

Special Populations

Pediatric

Trandolapril pharmacokinetics have not been evaluated in patients < 18 years of age.

Geriatric and Gender

Trandolapril pharmacokinetics have been investigated in the elderly ( > 65 years) and in both genders. The plasma concentration of trandolapril is increased in elderly hypertensive patients, but the plasma concentration of trandolaprilat and inhibition of ACE activity are similar in elderly and young hypertensive patients. The pharmacokinetics of trandolapril and trandolaprilat and inhibition of ACE activity are similar in male and female elderly hypertensive patients.

Race

Pharmacokinetic differences have not been evaluated in different races.

Renal Insufficiency

Compared to normal subjects, the plasma concentrations of trandolapril and trandolaprilat are approximately 2fold greater and renal clearance is reduced by about 85% in patients with creatinine clearance below 30 ml/min and in patients on hemodialysis. Dosage adjustment is recommended in renally impaired patients. (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

Hepatic Insufficiency

Following oral administration in patients with mild to moderate alcoholic cirrhosis, plasma concentrations of trandolapril and trandolaprilat were, respectively, 9-fold and 2-fold greater than in normal subjects, but inhibition of ACE activity was not affected. Lower doses should be considered in patients with hepatic insufficiency. (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

Drug Interactions

Trandolapril did not affect the plasma concentration (pre-dose and 2 hours post-dose) of oral digoxin (0.25 mg). Coadministration of trandolapril and cimetidine led to an increase of about 44% in Cmax for trandolapril, but no difference in the pharmacokinetics of trandolaprilat or in ACE inhibition. Coadministration of trandolapril and furosemide led to an increase of about 25% in the renal clearance of trandolaprilat, but no effect was seen on the pharmacokinetics of furosemide or trandolaprilat or on ACE inhibition.

Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects

A single 2-mg dose of MAVIK produces 70 to 85% inhibition of plasma ACE activity at 4 hours with about 10% decline at 24 hours and about half the effect manifest at 8 days. Maximum ACE inhibition is achieved with a plasma trandolaprilat concentration of 2 ng/mL. ACE inhibition is a function of trandolaprilat concentration, not trandolapril concentration. The effect of trandolapril on exogenous angiotensin I was not measured.

Hypertension

Four placebo-controlled dose response studies were conducted using once-daily oral dosing of MAVIK in doses from 0.25 to 16 mg per day in 827 black and non-black patients with mild to moderate hypertension. The minimal effective once-daily dose was 1 mg in non-black patients and 2 mg in black patients. Further decreases in trough supine diastolic blood pressure were obtained in non-black patients with higher doses, and no further response was seen with doses above 4 mg (up to 16 mg). The antihypertensive effect diminished somewhat at the end of the dosing interval, but trough/peak ratios are well above 50% for all effective doses. There was a slightly greater effect on the diastolic pressure, but no difference on systolic pressure with b.i.d. dosing. During chronic therapy, the maximum reduction in blood pressure with any dose is achieved within one week.

Following 6 weeks of monotherapy in placebo-controlled trials in patients with mild to moderate hypertension, once-daily doses of 2 to 4 mg lowered supine or standing systolic/diastolic blood pressure 24 hours after dosing by an average 7-10/4-5 mmHg below placebo responses in non-black patients. Once-daily doses of 2 to 4 mg lowered blood pressure 4-6/3-4 mmHg in black patients. Trough to peak ratios for effective doses ranged from 0.5 to 0.9. There were no differences in response between men and women, but responses were somewhat greater in patients under 60 than in patients over 60 years old. Abrupt withdrawal of MAVIK has not been associated with a rapid increase in blood pressure.

Administration of MAVIK to patients with mild to moderate hypertension results in a reduction of supine, sitting and standing blood pressure to about the same extent without compensatory tachycardia.

Symptomatic hypotension is infrequent, although it can occur in patients who are salt- and/or volume-depleted. (see WARNINGS.) Use of MAVIK in combination with thiazide diuretics gives a blood pressure lowering effect greater than that seen with either agent alone, and the additional effect of trandolapril is similar to the effect of monotherapy.

Heart Failure Post Myocardial Infarction or Left Ventricular Dysfunction Post Myocardial Infarction

The Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) Trial was a Danish, 27-center, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group study of the effect of trandolapril on all-cause mortality in stable patients with echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular dysfunction 3 to 7 days after a myocardial infarction. Subjects with residual ischemia or overt heart failure were included. Patients tolerant of a test dose of 1 mg trandolapril were randomized to placebo (n=873) or trandolapril (n=876) and followed for 24 months. Among patients randomized to trandolapril, who began treatment on 1 mg, 62% were successfully titrated to a target dose of 4 mg once daily over a period of weeks. The use of trandolapril was associated with a 16% reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality (p=0.042), largely cardiovascular mortality. Trandolapril was also associated with a 20% reduction in the risk of progression of heart failure (p=0.047), defined by a time-to-first-event analysis of death attributed to heart failure, hospitalization for heart failure, or requirement for open-label ACE inhibitor for the treatment of heart failure. There was no significant effect of treatment on other end-points: subsequent hospitalization, incidence of recurrent myocardial infarction, exercise tolerance, ventricular function, ventricular dimensions, or NYHA class.

The population in TRACE was entirely Caucasian and had less usage than would be typical in a U.S. population of other post-infarction interventions: 42% thrombolysis, 16% beta-adrenergic blockade, and 6.7% PTCA or CABG during the entire period of follow-up. Blood pressure control, especially in the placebo group, was poor: 47 to 53% of patients randomized to placebo and 32 to 40% of patients randomized to trandolapril had blood pressures > 140/95 at 90-day follow-up visits.

Patient Information

Angioedema

Angioedema, including laryngeal edema, may occur at any time during treatment with ACE inhibitors, including MAVIK. Patients should be so advised and told to report immediately any signs or symptoms suggesting angioedema (swelling of face, extremities, eyes, lips, tongue, difficulty in swallowing or breathing) and to stop taking the drug until they have consulted with their physician. (see WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)

Symptomatic Hypotension

Patients should be cautioned that light-headedness can occur, especially during the first days of MAVIK therapy, and should be reported to a physician. If actual syncope occurs, patients should be told to stop taking the drug until they have consulted with their physician (see WARNINGS).

All patients should be cautioned that inadequate fluid intake, excessive perspiration, diarrhea, or vomiting, resulting in reduced fluid volume, may precipitate an excessive fall in blood pressure with the same consequences of light-headedness and possible syncope.

Patients planning to undergo any surgery and/or anesthesia should be told to inform their physician that they are taking an ACE inhibitor that has a long duration of action.

Hyperkalemia

Patients should be told not to use potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium without consulting their physician. (see PRECAUTIONS.)

Neutropenia

Patients should be told to report promptly any indication of infection (e.g., sore throat, fever) which could be a sign of neutropenia.

Pregnancy

Female patients of childbearing age should be told about the consequences of exposure to MAVIK during pregnancy. Discuss treatment options with women planning to become pregnant. Patients should be asked to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible.

NOTE: As with many other drugs, certain advice to patients being treated with MAVIK is warranted. This information is intended to aid in the safe and effective use of this medication. It is not a disclosure of all possible adverse or intended effects.

Consumer Overview Uses

IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

 

TRANDOLAPRIL - ORAL

 

(tran-DOL-a-pril)

 

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Mavik

 

WARNING: This drug can cause serious (possibly fatal) harm to an unborn baby if used during pregnancy. Therefore, it is important to prevent pregnancy while taking this medication. Consult your doctor for more details and to discuss the use of reliable forms of birth control while taking this medication. If you are planning pregnancy, become pregnant, or think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor immediately.

 

USES: This drug belongs to a group of medications called ACE inhibitors. It is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). It works by relaxing blood vessels, causing them to widen. Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks and kidney problems.

This medication is also used to improve survival after an acute heart attack and with other drugs (e.g., "water pills"/diuretics, digoxin) to treat congestive heart failure.

 

OTHER USES: This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional. Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.

This medication may also be used to help protect the kidneys from damage due to diabetes.

 

HOW TO USE: Take this medication by mouth, usually once or twice a day; or as directed by your doctor. You may take this drug with or without food. Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same time(s) each day.

The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to therapy. For the treatment of high blood pressure, it may take 1 week before the full benefit of this drug occurs or several weeks to months when used for congestive heart failure.

It is important to continue taking this medication even if you feel well. Most people with high blood pressure do not feel sick.

Consumer Overview Side Effect

SIDE EFFECTS: You may experience dizziness, light-headedness, diarrhea, dry cough or blurred vision as your body adjusts to the medication. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: fainting, decreased sexual ability, symptoms of a high potassium blood level (such as muscle weakness, slow/irregular heartbeat).

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these highly unlikely but very serious side effects occur: change in the amount of urine, signs of infection (e.g., fever, chills, persistent sore throat).

This drug may rarely cause serious (possibly fatal) liver problems. If you notice any of the following highly unlikely but very serious side effects, seek immediate medical attention: yellowing eyes or skin, dark urine, stomach/abdominal pain, persistent fatigue, persistent nausea.

A serious allergic reaction to this drug is unlikely, but seek immediate medical attention if it occurs. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction include: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

 

Read the Mavik (trandolapril) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

PRECAUTIONS: Before taking trandolapril, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other ACE inhibitors (e.g., benazepril, captopril); or if you have any other allergies (including exposure to certain membranes used for blood filtering). This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: history of an allergic reaction which included swelling of the face/lips/tongue/throat (angioedema).

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver disease, high blood levels of potassium, severe dehydration (and loss of electrolytes such as sodium), blood vessel disease (e.g., collagen vascular diseases such as lupus, scleroderma).

This drug may make you dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Limit alcoholic beverages.

To minimize dizziness and light-headedness due to lowering of your blood pressure, get up slowly when rising from a seated or lying position. Serious loss of body fluids can also lower your blood pressure and worsen dizziness. Drink adequate fluids to prevent from becoming dehydrated. If you are on restricted fluid intake, consult your doctor for further instructions. Be careful not to become too overheated during exercise which can lead to excessive sweating. Consult your doctor if you experience severe vomiting or diarrhea.

This medication may increase your potassium levels. Before using potassium supplements or salt substitutes that contain potassium, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist that you are taking this medication.

Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, including dizziness and increases in potassium level.

This medication is not recommended for use during pregnancy due to the risk for harm to an unborn baby. Consult your doctor for more details. (See also Warning section.)

It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Consumer Overview Missed Dose

DRUG INTERACTIONS: See also Precautions section.

Your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with them first.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and nonprescription products you may use, especially of: aliskiren, drugs that suppress the immune system (e.g., azathioprine), lithium, gold injections, drugs that may increase the level of potassium in the blood (such as ARBs including losartan/valsartan, birth control pills containing drospirenone).

A very serious reaction may occur if you are getting injections for bee/wasp sting allergy (desensitization) and are also taking trandolapril. Make sure all your doctors know which medicines you are using.

Check the labels on all your medicines (such as cough-and-cold products, diet aids, or NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, naproxen) because they may contain ingredients that could increase your blood pressure or worsen your heart failure. Ask your pharmacist for more details.

This document does not contain all possible interactions. Therefore, before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the products you use. Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist.

 

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: unusually fast or slow heartbeat, severe dizziness, or fainting.

 

NOTES: Do not share this medication with others. Lifestyle changes such as stress reduction programs, exercise and dietary changes may increase the effectiveness of this medicine. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about lifestyle changes that might benefit you.

Laboratory and/or medical tests (e.g., kidney function, potassium blood level) should be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

Check your blood pressure regularly while taking this medication, especially when you first start this drug or when your dose is changed. Learn how to monitor your own blood pressure at home, and share the results with your doctor.

 

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

 

STORAGE: Store the US product at room temperature between 68-77 degrees F (20-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom.

Store the Canadian product at room temperature between 59-77 degrees F (15-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom.

Keep all medicines away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

Patient Detailed Side Effect

Brand Names: Mavik

Generic Name: trandolapril (Pronunciation: tran DOE la pril)

  • What is trandolapril (Mavik)?
  • What are the possible side effects of trandolapril (Mavik)?
  • What is the most important information I should know about trandolapril (Mavik)?
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking trandolapril (Mavik)?
  • How should I take trandolapril (Mavik)?
  • What happens if I miss a dose (Mavik)?
  • What happens if I overdose (Mavik)?
  • What should I avoid while taking trandolapril (Mavik)?
  • What other drugs will affect trandolapril (Mavik)?
  • Where can I get more information?

What is trandolapril (Mavik)?

Trandolapril is an ACE inhibitor. ACE stands for angiotensin converting enzyme.

Trandolapril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), and to improve survival after a heart attack.

Trandolapril may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Mavik 4 mg

round, pink, imprinted with KNOLL 4

What are the possible side effects of trandolapril (Mavik)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. You may be more likely to have an allergic reaction if you are African-American.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • urinating less than usual, or not at all;
  • swelling, weight gain, feeling short of breath;
  • feeling like you might pass out;
  • chest pain, trouble breathing;
  • pounding heartbeats or fluttering in your chest;
  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms;
  • easy bruising, unusual bleeding (nose, mouth, vagina, or rectum), purple or red pinpoint spots under your skin;
  • high potassium (slow heart rate, weak pulse, muscle weakness, tingly feeling); or
  • low calcium (numbness or tingly feeling around your mouth, fast or slow heart rate, muscle tightness or contraction, overactive reflexes).

Less serious side effects may include:

  • cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, sneezing, sore throat;
  • cough;
  • muscle pain;
  • dizziness, drowsiness, headache;
  • sleep problems (insomnia);
  • upset stomach, diarrhea, constipation; or
  • mild skin itching or rash.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the Mavik (trandolapril) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

Learn More »

What is the most important information I should know about trandolapril (Mavik)?

Do not use trandolapril if you are pregnant. Stop using this medication and tell your doctor right away if you become pregnant.

You should not use trandolapril if you have ever had angioedema, or if you are allergic to trandolapril or similar medicines, such as benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), fosinopril (Monopril), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), or ramipril (Altace).

Avoid drinking alcohol. It can further lower your blood pressure and may increase some of the side effects of trandolapril.

Do not use salt substitutes or potassium supplements while taking trandolapril, unless your doctor has told you to.

Follow your doctor's instructions about the type and amount of liquids you should drink while taking trandolapril. Tell your doctor if you have a prolonged illness that causes diarrhea or vomiting.

Patient Detailed How Take

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking trandolapril (Mavik)?

You should not use trandolapril if you have ever had angioedema, or if you are allergic to trandolapril or to any other ACE inhibitor, such as benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), fosinopril (Monopril), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), or ramipril (Altace).

To make sure you can safely take trandolapril, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

  • kidney disease (or if you are on dialysis);
  • liver disease;
  • heart disease or congestive heart failure;
  • diabetes; or
  • a connective tissue disease such as Marfan syndrome, Sjogren's syndrome, lupus, scleroderma, or rheumatoid arthritis.

FDA pregnancy category D. Do not use trandolapril if you are pregnant. Stop using this medication and tell your doctor right away if you become pregnant. Trandolapril can cause injury or death to the unborn baby if you take the medicine during your second or third trimester. Use effective birth control while taking trandolapril.

Trandolapril can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while you are using trandolapril.

How should I take trandolapril (Mavik)?

Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results.

Trandolapril can be taken with or without food.

Conditions that may cause very low blood pressure include: vomiting, diarrhea, heavy sweating, heart disease, dialysis, a low salt diet, or taking diuretics (water pills). Follow your doctor's instructions about the type and amount of liquids you should drink while taking trandolapril. Tell your doctor if you have a prolonged illness that causes diarrhea or vomiting.

Your blood pressure will need to be checked often. Your kidney or liver function may also need to be tested. Visit your doctor regularly.

If you need surgery, tell the surgeon ahead of time that you are using trandolapril.

If you are being treated for high blood pressure, keep using this medication even if you feel well. High blood pressure often has no symptoms. You may need to use blood pressure medication for the rest of your life.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Patient Detailed Avoid Taking

What happens if I miss a dose (Mavik)?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose (Mavik)?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

Overdose symptoms may include feeling extremely dizzy or light-headed, or fainting.

What should I avoid while taking trandolapril (Mavik)?

Avoid drinking alcohol. It can further lower your blood pressure and may increase some of the side effects of trandolapril.

Do not use salt substitutes or potassium supplements while taking trandolapril, unless your doctor has told you to.

What other drugs will affect trandolapril (Mavik)?

Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use, especially:

  • gold injections to treat arthritis;
  • insulin or oral diabetes medications;
  • lithium (Lithobid, Eskalith);
  • a diuretic (water pill); or
  • aspirin or other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn, Naprelan, Treximet), celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Arthrotec, Cambia, Cataflam, Voltaren, Flector Patch, Pennsaid, Solareze), indomethacin (Indocin), meloxicam (Mobic), and others.

This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with trandolapril. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over the counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about trandolapril.


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Rx Scoops
Featured Topics
Advertisements
Copyrights ©2014: Rx Scoops - Designed & Developed By - GOIGI